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Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary


Smith's Bible Dictionary

(a rugged region), (Luke 3:1) is in all probability the Greek equivalent for the Aramaic Argob, one of the five Roman provinces into which the country northeast of the Jordan was divided in New Testament times. [ARGOB]

ATS Bible Dictionary

In the time of Christ, was, as its name imports, a rugged province, lying on the northeast border of Palestine, south of Damascus, between the mountains of Arabia Deserta on the east, and Iturea, Auranitis, and Batania on the west and south, Luke 3:1. Herod the Great subdued the robbers that infested it; and after his death it was governed by Philip his son, and then by Herod Agrippa.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
A rugged region, corresponds to the Hebrews Argob (q.v.), the Greek name of a region on the east of Jordan (Luke 3:1); one of the five Roman provinces into which that district was divided. It was in the tetrarchy of Philip, and is now called the Lejah.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

trak-o-ni'-tis: Appears in Scripture only in the phrase tes Itouraias kai Trachbnitidos choras, literally, "of the Iturean and Trachonian region" (Luke 3:1). Trachonitis signifies the land associated with the trachon, "a rugged stony tract." There are two volcanic districts South and East of Damascus, to which the Greeks applied this name: that to the Northwest of the mountain of Bashan (Jebel ed-Druze) is now called el-Leja', "the refuge" or "asylum." It lies in the midst of an arable and pastoral country; and although it could never have supported a large population, it has probably always been inhabited. The other is away to the Northeast of the mountain, and is called in Arabic es-Safa. This covers much the larger area. It is a wild and inhospitable desert tract, remote from the dwellings of men. It was well known to the ancients; but there was nothing to attract even a sparse population to its dark and forbidding rocks, burning under the suns of the wilderness. It therefore plays no part in the history. These are the two Trachons of Strabo (xvi.2, 20). They are entirely volcanic in origin, consisting of lava belched forth by volcanoes that have been extinct for ages. In cooling, the lava has split up and crumbled into the most weird and fantastic forms. The average elevation of these districts above the surrounding country is about 30 ft. Es-Safa is quite waterless. There are springs around the border of el-Leja', but in the interior, water-supply depends entirely upon cisterns. Certain great hollows in the rocks also form natural reservoirs, in which the rain water is preserved through the summer months.

El-Leja' is roughly triangular in shape, with its apex to the North. The sides are about 25 miles in length, and the base about 20. The present writer has described this region as he saw it during two somewhat lengthened visits: From Zor`a our course lay Northeast by East.... What a wild solitude it is! Far on every hand stretched a veritable land of stone. The first hour or two of our march no living thing was seen..... Wherever we looked, before or behind, lay wide fields of volcanic rock, black and repulsive,.... with here and there a deep circular depression, through which in the dim past red destruction belched forth, now carefully walled round the lip to prevent wandering sheep or goat from falling in by night. The general impression conveyed was as if the dark waters of a great sea, lashed to fury by a storm, had been suddenly petrified..... At times we passed over vast sheets of lava which in cooling had cracked in nearly regular lines, and which, broken through in parts, appeared to rest on a stratum of different character, like pieces of cyclopaean pavement. Curious rounded rocks were occasionally seen by the wayside, like gigantic black soap bubbles blown up by the subterranean steam and gases of the active volcanic age; often, with the side broken out as if burst by escaping vapor, the mass, having cooled too far to collapse, remained an enduring monument of the force that formed it. Scanty vegetation peeped from the fissures in the rocks, or preserved a precarious existence in the scanty soil sometimes seen in a hollow between opposing slopes. In a dreary waterless land where the cloudless sun, beating down on fiery stones, creates a heat like that of an oven, it were indeed a wonder if anything less hardy than the ubiquitous thistle could long hold up its head..... When the traveler has fairly penetrated the rough barriers that surround eI-Leja' he finds not a little pleasant land within-fertile soil which, if only freed a little from overlying stones, might support a moderate population. In ancient times it was partly cleared, and the work of the old-world agriculturists remains in gigantic banks of stones built along the edges of the patches they cultivated" (Arab and Druze at Home, 30;).

In some parts, especially those occupied by the Druzes, fair crops are grown. Where the Arabs are masters, poverty reigns. They also have an evil reputation. As one said to the present writer, "They will even slay the guest." 'Arab el-Leja' anjas ma yakun is a common saying, which may be freely rendered: "Than the Arabs of el-Leja' greater rascals do not exist." Until comparatively recent years there were great breadths of oak and terebinth. These have disappeared, largely owing to the enterprise of the charcoal burners. The region to the Northeast was described by a native as bass wa`r, "nothing but barren rocky tracts" (compare Hebrew ya`ar), over which in summer, he said, not even a bird would fly. There are many ruined sites. A list of 71 names collected by the present writer will be found in PEFS, 1895, 366;. In many cases the houses, strongly built of stone, are still practically complete, after centuries of desertion.

There may possibly be a reference to the Trachons in the Old Testament where Jeremiah speaks of the charerim, "parched places" (17:6). The cognate el-Charrah is the word used by the Arabs for such a burned, rocky area. For theory that el-Leja' corresponds to the Old Testament "Argob," see ARGOB.

The robbers who infested the place, making use of the numerous caves, were routed out by Herod the Great (Ant., XV, x, 1;; XVI, ix, 1; XVII, ii, 1). Trachonitis was included in the tetrarchy of Philip (viii, 1; ix, 4). At his death without heirs it was joined to the province of Syria (XVIII, iv, 6). Caligula gave it to Agrippa I. After his death in 44 A.D., and during the minority of his son, it was administered by Roman officers. From 53 till 100 A.D. it was ruled by Agrippa II. In 106 A.D. it was incorporated in the new province of Arabia. Under the Romans the district enjoyed a period of great prosperity, to which the Greek inscriptions amply testify. To this time belong practically all the remains to be seen today. The theaters, temples, public buildings and great roads speak of a high civilization. That Christianity also made its way into these fastnesses is vouched for by the ruins of churches. Evil days came with the advent of the Moslems. Small Christian communities are still found at Khabab on the western Luchf, and at Sur in the interior. The southeastern district, with the chief town of Damet el-'Alia, is in the hands of the Druzes; the rest is dominated by the Arabs.

W. Ewing

5139. Trachonitis -- Trachonitis, a rough region South of Damascus
... 5138, 5139. Trachonitis. 5140 . Trachonitis, a rough region South of Damascus.
Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: Trachonitis ...
// - 6k

2484. Itouraios -- Ituraea, a region North of Pal.
... Phonetic Spelling: (ee-too-rah'-yah) Short Definition: Ituraean Definition: Ituraean,
an adjective applied to a district also called Trachonitis, about 60 ...
// - 6k


Concerning the Revolt of the Trachonites; How Sylleus Accused ...
... had been at Rome, and was come back again, a war arose between him and the Arabians,
on the occasion following: The inhabitants of Trachonitis, after Caesar ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 9 concerning the revolt.htm

One Argument which Has Been Much Relied Upon but not More than Its ...
... of the reign of Tiberius Caesar " Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother
Philip tetrarch of Iturea, and of the region of Trachonitis " the word ...
/.../paley/evidences of christianity/chapter vi one argument which.htm

Herod is Confirmed in his Kingdom by Caesar, and Cultivates a ...
... 4. Moreover, after the first games at Actium, he added to his kingdom both the region
called Trachonitis, and what lay in its neighborhood, Batanea, and the ...
/.../chapter 20 herod is confirmed.htm

Perea. Beyond Jordan.
... was called Perea: but it was so divided, that the southern part of it was particularly
called Perea; the other part was called Batanea, Auranitis, Trachonitis. ...
/.../lightfoot/from the talmud and hebraica/chapter 91 perea beyond jordan.htm

On the Position Given to the Preaching of John the Baptist in all ...
... Pilate being governor of Jud??a, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother
Philip tetrarch of Itur??a and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias ...
/.../augustine/the harmony of the gospels/chapter vi on the position given.htm

John the Baptist's Person and Preaching.
... east of Mt. Hermon, west of Trachonitis. It received its name from Jetur,
son of Ishmael (Genesis 25:15). Its Ishmaelite inhabitants ...
/.../mcgarvey/the four-fold gospel/xvii john the baptists person.htm

How Taricheae was Taken. A Description of the River Jordan, and of ...
... of Jordan, but in reality it is carried thither after an occult manner from the
place called Phiala: this place lies as you go up to Trachonitis, and is a ...
/.../chapter 10 how taricheae was.htm

Palestine Eighteen Centuries Ago
... in the kingdom; Herod Antipas (the Herod of the gospels), tetrarch of Galilee and
Peraea; and Philip, tetrarch of Gaulonitis, Trachonitis, Batanaea, and Panias ...
/.../sketches of jewish social life/chapter 1 palestine eighteen centuries.htm

The Historical Situation
... He ruled over Iturea and Trachonitis, the country to the north and east of the Sea
of Galilee, having his capital at Caesarea Philippi, a city built and named ...
/.../rhees/the life of jesus of nazareth/i the historical situation.htm

Fragment xvii. On the Fortunes of Hyrcanus and Antigonus, and on ...
... also proclaimed Herod as king, and gave him, in addition, the cities Hippus, Gadara,
Gaza, Joppa, Anthedon, and a part of Arabia, Trachonitis, and Auranitis ...
/.../africanus/the writings of julius africanus/fragment xvii on the fortunes.htm

Trachonitis (1 Occurrence)
... Lejah. Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. TRACHONITIS. trak ... Arabs. W. Ewing.
Multi-Version Concordance Trachonitis (1 Occurrence). Luke ...
/t/trachonitis.htm - 13k

Ituraea (1 Occurrence)
... A district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with the adjacent territory
of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip (Luke 3:1). The present Jedur ...
/i/ituraea.htm - 10k

Tetrarch (5 Occurrences)
... not synonymous with "ethnarch" at least the Romans made a distinction between Herod
"tetrarch" of Galilee, Philip "tetrarch" of Trachonitis, Lysanias "tetrarch ...
/t/tetrarch.htm - 9k

Trachoni'tis (1 Occurrence)
Trachoni'tis. Trachonitis, Trachoni'tis. Tracing . Multi-Version Concordance ...
Trachonitis, Trachoni'tis. Tracing . Reference Bible.
/t/trachoni'tis.htm - 6k

Argob (6 Occurrences)
... It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New Testament (Luke 3:1).
These cities were conquered by the Israelites (Deuteronomy 3:4; 1 Kings 4:13). ...
/a/argob.htm - 15k

Uz (8 Occurrences)
... Josephus says "Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus" (Ant., I, vi, 4). Arabian tradition
places the scene of Job s sufferings in the Hauran at Deir Eiyub (Job's ...
/u/uz.htm - 14k

Judea (50 Occurrences)
... Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother
Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias ...
/j/judea.htm - 22k

Lysanias (1 Occurrence)
... Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother
Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias ...
/l/lysanias.htm - 7k

Lysanius (1 Occurrence)
... Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother
Philip tetrarch of Iturea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanius ...
/l/lysanius.htm - 6k

Lysa'ni-as (1 Occurrence)
... Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod tetrarch of Galilee, and Philip his brother,
tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias ...
/l/lysa'ni-as.htm - 6k

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