Leviticus 26:14

The promises of God are prophecies of good; so are his threatening prophecies of evil. Prophecy, therefore, gives no countenance to fatalism, since it is made to depend upon conditions. God may, therefore, repent him of evils threatened, viz. when sinners repent of the sin that provoked him. So long as the Hebrews were faithful to their God, they found him faithful in mercy; when they rebelled, they found him no less faithful in judgment. What a commentary upon the verses before us is the history of the Israelites! Let us review -


1. They were to be visited with plagues.

(1) The plague of terror. This is the natural plague of a guilty conscience. The apprehension of formidable judgments.

(2) Of consumption. This term expresses all chronic diseases.

(3) Of burning ague. This describes those diseases which are more acute.

(4) All these plagues are to "consume the eyes, and cause sorrow of heart."

2. They were to suffer from invasion.

(1) The sword of the enemy was to consume them. How fearfully they suffered under the judges, under the kings, and afterwards!

(2) The exactions of the tyrant were to distress them. When the invaders mastered them, how grievously were they oppressed!

3. They were to encounter the anger of their God.

(1) The plague and the sword of the enemy could not otherwise have visited them.

(2) But in the source itself there is the most formidable terror. "I will set nay face against you."

4. Their obstinacy was to bring upon them aggravated evils.

(1) The land was to become unfruitful. For the heaven was to be like iron, which might reflect the glare of heat, but could distil no rain or dew.

(2) Wild beasts were to come among them. When the people become diminished by war and pestilence and famine, wild animals multiply and become formidable (see Numbers 21:6; 2 Kings 17:25; 2 Kings 2:24; Ezekiel 5:17).

(3) It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. Rather let us seek his mercy.


1. They were to be scattered amongst the heathen (verse 33).

(1) Thus ten of the tribes were carried away by the Assyrians.

(2) The two remaining tribes were afterwards removed by the Babylonians.

(3) Some of these returned under Ezra and Nehemiah, and were ultimately carried away by the Romans.

2. The sword was to/follow them there.

(1) The sword of war.

(2) The sword of persecution. So they suffered from pagans, from papists, from Mohammedans.

3. They were to suffer astonishment (verses 36-39).

(1) Faintness of heart, suspicion of danger where it existed not, susceptibility to panic.

(2) Pining in terror.

(3) Perishing through the rapacity of their enemies.

4. Their sufferings were to be protracted.

(1) The land was to enjoy her sabbaths, Houbigant observes how literally this was fulfilled in the seventy years of the Babylonish Captivity. "From Saul to the Babylonish Captivity are numbered about four hundred and ninety years, during which period there were seventy sabbaths of years; for seven, multiplied by seventy, make four hundred and ninety. Now, the Babylonish Captivity lasted seventy years, and during that time the land of Israel rested. Therefore the land rested just as many years in the Babylonish Captivity as it should have rested sabbaths if the Jews had observed the law relative to the sabbaths of the land."

(2) The longer term of "seven times" thrice repeated (verses 21, 24, 28) is also notable. These are the "times of the Gentiles," during which Jerusalem is to be trodden down of them (Luke 21:24).

5. Meanwhile their land was to lie desolate (verses 31-35).

(1) Such has been its history, under the Romans, under the Saracens, under the Crusaders, under the Turks.

(2) Who but God could have foreseen all this? How unreasonable is unbelief! - J.A.M.

But if ye will not hearken.

1. Passive indifference to Divine teachings and appeals: "Not hearken."

2. Non-compliance with Divine calls and claims: "Not do."

3. Contemptuous rejection of God's statutes: "Despise" (Malachi 3:14, 15).

4. Spiritual revolt from all sacred demands: "Your soul abhor My judgments" (John 3:20; Job 24:13). A fearful departure from God.

5. Violation of all covenant relationship: "Ye break My covenant."


1. Sin brings disease and physical suffering in its train (ver. 16): "Terror, consumption, and the burning ague, that shall consume the eyes and. cause sorrow of heart." Impiety inevitably drifts into impurity.

2. Failure and penury follow quickly upon habits of indulgence and impurity: "Sow your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it" (ver. 16). Nothing succeeds in the hands of a dissipated and dissolute man, and he becomes a prey to his hated scorners and rivals.

3. A godless life invites the ravages of the enemy (ver. 17). God withdrew His protection, and adversaries swept down upon Israel. They who repudiate Divine government are "taken captive by the devil at his will," and serve their enemies. Sin is very cruel. It "slays" its victims; slaughters their virtue, peace, happiness, hopes; destroys precious souls.

4. Sin also fills the life of wrongdoers with terrors; they "flee when none pursueth." Even in nations there is "strong confidence" and "a sound mind" only when conscious of rectitude and the enjoyment of God's approval. It paralyses a people's heart to feel that Heaven is alienated and Divine favour lost. Armies, too, have gone with assurance into battles when convinced that God is with them — as Cromwell's "Ironsides" — while enemies have fled with panic, as did the Spanish Armada, when possessed with alarm that God was against them.

5. There are the yet darker calamities of abject overthrow and Divine desertion: "I will break the pride of your power, and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as brass" (ver. 19) — a picture of prostration and helplessness which finds verification in(1) Babylon's fall — now lying buried amid bleaching sands, emblem of rebuked pride;(2) the desolation of Jerusalem — now a waste scene, and her children the "tribes of the wandering foot and weary breast";(3) the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum — interred beneath volcanic ashes, a monument of sudden wrath on a voluptuous people. Such historic admonitions warn against national impiety, and call mankind to seriousness and prayer; for even in the solemn threatenings of God there lies an overt assurance of mercy, that "if a nation or individual will cease from apostasy and hearken unto Him" (ver. 18), He will turn aside the "seven times more" punishment for sins, and show the forgiveness in which He delights, and the salvation which the glorious gospel of His grace proclaims.

(W. H. Jellie.)

I. How THEIR SIN IS DESCRIBED, which would bring all this misery upon them. Not sins of ignorance and infirmity — God had provided sacrifices for these; not the sins they repented of and forsook, but sins presumptuously committed and obstinately persisted in.

1. A contempt of God's commandments.(1) Despising His statutes; both the duties enjoined, and the authority enjoining them. Those are hastening apace to their own ruin who begin to think it below them to be religious.(2) Abhorring His judgments. They that begin by despising religion will soon come to loathe it; mean thoughts of it will ripen into ill thoughts of it. They that turn from it will turn against it, and their hearts rise at it.(3) Breaking His covenant. They that reject the precept will come at last to renounce the covenant. Observe, it is God's covenant they break — He made it, but they break it. Note — If a covenant be made and kept between God and man, God must have all the honour; but if ever it be broken, man must bear all the blame; on him shall this breach be.

2. A contempt of God's corrections. Their contempt of God's Word would not have brought them to ruin if they had not added to that a contempt of His rod, which should have brought them to repentance. Three ways this is expressed.(1) "If you will not for all this hearken to Me" (vers. 18, 21, 27). If ye will not learn obedience by the things which you suffer, but be as deaf to the loud alarms of God's judgments as you have been to the close reasonings of His Word, and the secret whispers of your own consciences, you are obstinate indeed.(2) "If ye will walk contrary to Me" (vers. 21, 23, 27). All sinners walk contrary to God, to His truths, laws, and counsels, but those especially that are incorrigible under His judgments. The design of the rod is to humble them, and soften them, and bring them to repentance; but instead of this, their hearts are more hardened and exasperated against God, and in their distress they trespass yet more against Him (2 Chronicles 28:22). This is walking contrary to God.(3) "If ye will not be reformed by these things." God's design in punishing is to reform, by giving men sensible convictions of the evil of sin, and obliging them to seek unto Him for relief. This is the primary intention, but those that will not be reformed by the judgments of God must expect to be ruined by them.

II. How THE MISERY IS DESCRIBED which their sin would bring upon them.

1. God Himself would be against them; and this is the root and cause of all their misery.(1) "I will set My face against you" (ver. 17); i.e., "I will set Myself against you, set Myself to ruin you." These proud sinners God will resist, and face those down that confront His authority; or the face is put for the anger — "I will show Myself highly displeased at you."(2) "I will walk contrary to you" (vers. 24, 28). "With the froward He will wrestle" (Psalm 18:26). When God in His providence thwarts the designs of a people, which they thought well laid, crosseth their purposes, breaks their measures, blasts their endeavours, and disappoints their expectations-then He walks contrary to them. Note — There is nothing got by striving with God Almighty; for He will either break the heart or break the neck of those that contend with Him, will bring them either to repentance or ruin. "I will walk at all adventures with you"; so some read it, "All covenant lovingkindness shall be forgotten, and I will leave you to common providence." Note, those that cast God off, it is just with Him to cast them off.(3) As they continued obstinate, the: judgments should increase yet more upon them. If the first sensible tokens of God's displeasure do not attain their end to humble and reform them, then (ver. 18), "I will punish you seven times more"; and again (ver. 21), "I will bring seven times more plagues"; and (ver. 24), "I will punish you yet seven times"; and (ver. 28), "I, even I, will chastise you seven times for your sins." Note — If lesser judgments do not do their work, God will send greater; for when He judgeth He will overcome. If true repentance do not stay process, it will go on till execution be taken out. Those that are obstinate and incorrigible, when they have weathered one storm, must expect another more violent; and how severely soever they are punished till they are in hell, still they must say there is worse behind, unless they repent. If the founder have hitherto melted in vain (Jeremiah 6:29), the furnace will be heated "seven times hotter" (a proverbial expression used Daniel 3:19), and again and again "seven times hotter." And who among us can dwell with such devouring fire? God doth not begin with the sorest judgments, to show that He is patient, and delights not in the death of sinners; but if they repent not, He will proceed to the sorest, to show that He is righteous, and that He will not be mocked or set at defiance.(4) Their misery is completed in that threatening (ver. 30), "My soul shall abhor you." That man is as miserable as he can be whom God abhors, for His resentments are just and effective. Thus, "if any man draw back," as these here are supposed to do, "God's soul shall have no pleasure in them" (Hebrews 10:38); and He will spue them out of His mouth (Revelation 3:16). It is spoken of as strange, and yet too true, "Hath thy soul loathed Sion?" (Jeremiah 14:19.)

2. The whole creation would be at war with them; all God's sore judgments would be sent against them, for He hath many arrows in His quiver. The threatenings here are very particular, because really they were prophecies; and He that foresaw all their rebellions knew they would prove so (see Deuteronomy 31:16, 29). This long roll of threatenings shows that evil pursues sinners. Here is(1) temporal judgments threatened.(a) Diseases of body, which should be epidemical (ver. 16). All diseases are God's servants, and do what He appoints them, and are often used as scourges wherewith He chastiseth a provoking people. The pestilence is threatened (ver. 25) to meet them when they are gathered together in their cities for fear of the sword. And the greater the concourse of people is, the greater desolation doth the pestilence make; and when it gets among the soldiers that should defend a place, it is of most fatal consequences.(b) Famine and scarcity of bread, which should be brought upon them several ways, as:

(i.) By plunder (ver. 16): "Your enemies shall eat it up, and carry it off, as the Madianites did" (Judges 6:5, 6).

(ii.) By unseasonable weather, especially the want of rain (ver. 19); "I will make your heaven as iron," letting fall no rain, but reflecting heat; and then the earth would of course be as hard and dry as brass, and their labour in ploughing and sowing would be in vain (ver. 26); for the increase of the earth depends upon God's good providence more than upon man's good husbandry.

(iii.) By the besieging of their cities; for sure that must be supposed to reduce them to such extremity, as that they should "eat the flesh of their sons and daughters" (ver. 29).(c) War, and the prevalency of their enemies over them: "Ye shall be slain before your enemies" (ver. 17).(d) Wild beasts — lions, and bears, and wolves — which should increase upon them, and tear in pieces all that came in their way (ver. 22), as we read of two bears that in an instant killed forty and two children (2 Kings 2:24). This one of the four sore judgments threatened (Ezekiel 14:21), which plainly refers to this chapter. Man was made to have dominion over the creatures, and though many of them are stronger than he, yet none of them could have hurt him, nay, all of them should have served him, if he had not first shaken off God's dominion, and so lost his own; and now the creatures are in rebellion against him that is in rebellion against his Maker, and when the Lord of those hosts pleaseth, are the executioners of His wrath and ministers of His justice.(e) Captivity, or dispersion: "I will scatter you among the heathen" (ver. 33) "in your enemies' land" (ver. 34). Never were more people so incorporated and united among themselves as they were; but for their sin God would scatter them, so that they should be lost among the heathen, from whom God had so graciously distinguished them, but with whom they had wickedly mingled themselves. Yet when they were scattered Divine justice had not done with them, but would draw out a sword after them, which should find them out, and follow them, wherever they were. God's judgments, as they cannot be outfaced, so they cannot be outrun.(f) The utter ruin and desolation of their land, which should be so remarkable that their very enemies themselves, who had helped it forward, should in the review be astonished at it (ver. 32).

(i.) Their cities should be waste, forsaken, uninhabited, and all the buildings destroyed; those that escaped the desolations of war should fall to decay of themselves.

(ii.) Their sanctuaries should be a desolation, i.e., their synagogues, where they met for religious worship every Sabbath, as well as their Tabernacle, where they met thrice year.

(iii.) The country itself should be desolate, not tilled or husbanded (vers. 34, 35); then the land should enjoy its sabbaths, because they bad not religiously observed the sabbatical years which God appointed them. They tilled their ground when God would have them let it rest, justly therefore were they driven out of it; and the expression intimates that the ground itself was pleased and easy when it was rid of the burthen of such sinners, under which it had groaned (Romans 8:20. &c.). The captivity in Babylon lasted seventy years, and so long the land enjoyed her sabbaths, as is said (2 Chronicles 36:21) with reference to this here.(g) The destruction of their idols, though rather a mercy than a judgment, yet being a necessary piece of justice, is here mentioned, to show what would be the sin that would bring all these miseries upon them (ver. 30).(2) Spiritual judgments are here threatened which should seize the mind, for He that made that can, when He pleaseth, make His sword approach unto it. It is here threatened —(a) that they should find no acceptance with God (ver. 31).(b) That they should have no courage in their wars, but should be quite dispirited and disheartened (vers. 17, 36). Those that cast off the fear of God expose themselves to the fear of everything else (Proverbs 28:1).(c) That they should have no hope of the forgiveness of their sins (ver. 39; Ezekiel 33:10). Note — It is a righteous thing with God, to leave those to despair of pardon that have presumed to sin; and it is owing to free grace, if we are not abandoned to pine away in the iniquity we are born in and have lived in.

( Matthew Henry, D. D..)

Imprecations like those set forth in our section were not unusual among the ancients; one brief parallel may here be inserted. When the people of Cirrba and others had polluted the temple of Delhi and profaned its holy treasures, the Amphictyons, after having devastated their territories, and sold the inhabitants as slaves, protested and swore that no one should ever cultivate the devoted land, and they publicly pronounced this curse: "If any persons transgress this edict, whether private individuals, or a tribe, or a people, their land shall, bear no fruit, and the women shall bring forth no children who resemble their fathers, but shall give birth to monsters; nor shall the beasts produce young of a normal shape; misfortune shall befall them in their wars, their tribunals, and their public assemblies; they themselves, with their houses and their whole race, shall be destroyed; and they shall never again present to the gods an acceptable offering."

(M. M. Kalisch, Ph. D.)

In the summer of 1884, when the cholera was raging in Spain, our newspapers constantly warned the people that dirt bred disease, and opened up a highway for the cholera to spread rapidly, if once it reached our shores. This theme was not dwelt on for the sake of frightening people, for the sake of the alarm, but to frighten them into doing a good thing which otherwise they would have left undone. The result, at least in New York City, was most beneficial. Alarm bred action and action cleansed the city as it never had been cleansed before. And not only did we have no cholera, but in the fall of 1885 the death-rate of the city. bad been unusually low. In this case forewarned was forearmed, and the warning was a blessing, and not a curse. The same is true of the patient and his wise physician. The latter sees, perhaps, that the manner of his patient's living is injurious. It will end fatally, so he warns him. He does not do it merely to frighten him, but to frighten him away from the folly of his present manner of life.

(A. F. Schauffler.)

When the king removes, the court and all the carriages follow after, and when they are gone the hangings are taken down; nothing is left behind but bare walls, dust, and rubbish. So if God removes from a man or a nation where He kept His court, His graces will not stay behind; and if they be gone, farewell peace, farewell comfort; down go the hangings of all prosperity, nothing is left behind but confusion and disorder.

(J. Spencer.)

The sun hath but one simple act of shining; yet do we not see that it doth unite clay and straw, dissolve ice and water? It hardens clay, and melteth wax; it makes the flowers to smell sweetly, and a dead corpse to scent loathsomely; the hot fire to be cold, and the cold water hotter; cures one man with its heat, yet therewith kills another. What is the reason? The cause is in the several objects, and their divers dispositions and constitutions, and not in the sun's act of shining, which is one and the same thing. Or let a looking-glass be set in the window. Will it not represent to the eye diversity of objects? If thou go to it in decent and seemly apparel, shalt thou not see the like figure? If dejected, and in coarse raiment, will it not offer to thy view the same equal proportion? Do but stretch thyself, bend thy brow, and run against it, will it not resemble the like person and actions? Where now is the change — shall we conclude in the glass? No; for it is neither altered from the place nor in the nature. Thus the change of love and affection is not in God, but in respect of the object about which it is exercised. If one day God seem to love us, another to hate us, there is alteration within us first, not any in the Lord. We shall be sure to find a change, but it must be when we do change our ways; but God never changeth. Such as we are to ourselves, such will He be to us; if we run stubbornly against Him, He will walk stubbornly against us; with the froward He will be froward, but with the meek He will show Himself meek; yet one and the same God still, in whom there is not the least shadow of change imaginable.

(J. Spencer.)

The physician, when he findeth that the potion which he hath given his patient will not work, he seconds it with one more violent; but if he perceive the disease to be settled, then he puts him into a course of physic, so that, medice misere, he shall have at present but small comfort of his life. And thus doth the surgeon too: if a gentle plaster will not serve, then he applies that which is more corroding; and to prevent a gangrene, he makes use of his cauterising knife, and takes off the joint or member that is so ill affected. Even so God, when men profit not by such crosses as He hath formerly exercised them with, when they are not bettered by lighter afflictions, then He sends heavier, and proceeds from milder to sharper courses. If the dross of their sin will not come off, He will throw them into the melting-pot again and again, crush them harder in the press, and lay on such irons as shall enter more deep into their souls. If He strikes and they grieve not or they be so foolish that they will not know the judgment of their God, He will bring seven times more plagues upon them, cross upon cross, loss upon loss, trouble upon trouble, one sorrow upon the neck of another, till they are in a manner wasted and consumed.

(J. Spencer.)

Egyptians, Isaac, Israelites, Jacob, Moses
Mount Sinai
Carry, Commandments, Commands, Ear, Hearken, Laws, Listen, Obey
1. Of idolatry
2. Reverence
3. A blessing to those who keep the commandments
14. A curse to those who break them
40. God promises to remember those who repent

Dictionary of Bible Themes
Leviticus 26:14

     4207   land, divine gift

Leviticus 26:14-16

     4843   plague
     5297   disease
     5845   emptiness
     6142   decay

Leviticus 26:14-17

     5607   warfare, examples
     6232   rejection of God, results
     8786   opposition, to sin and evil
     8840   unfaithfulness, to God

Leviticus 26:14-20

     8032   trust, lack of
     8833   threats

Leviticus 26:14-39

     5827   curse
     6026   sin, judgment on

Emancipated Slaves
I am the Lord your God, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bands of your yoke, and made you go upright.'--LEV. xxvi. 13. The history of Israel is a parable and a prophecy as well as a history. The great central word of the New Testament has been drawn from it, viz. 'redemption,' i.e. a buying out of bondage. The Hebrew slaves in Egypt were 'delivered.' The deliverance made them a nation. God acquired them for Himself, and
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

Lii. Trust in God.
15th Sunday after Trinity. S. Matt. vi. 31. "Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and His righteousness." INTRODUCTION.--We read in ancient Roman history that a general named Aemilius Paulus was appointed to the Roman army in a time of war and great apprehension. He found in the army a sad condition of affairs, there were more officers than fighting men, and all these officers wanted to have their advice taken, and the war conducted in accordance with their several opinions. Then Aemilius Paulus
S. Baring-Gould—The Village Pulpit, Volume II. Trinity to Advent

A Reformer's Schooling
'The words of Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah. And it came to pass in the month Chislev, in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the palace, 2. That Hanani, one of my brethren, came, he and certain men of Judah; and I asked them concerning the Jews that had escaped, which were left of the captivity, and concerning Jerusalem. 3. And they said unto me, The remnant that are left of the captivity there in the province are in great affliction and reproach: the wall of Jerusalem also is broken down, and
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

a survey of the third and closing discourse of the prophet
We shall now, in conclusion, give a survey of the third and closing discourse of the prophet. After an introduction in vi. 1, 2, where the mountains serve only to give greater solemnity to the scene (in the fundamental passages Deut. xxxii. 1, and in Is. 1, 2, "heaven and earth" are mentioned for the same purposes, inasmuch as they are the most venerable parts of creation; "contend with the mountains" by taking them in and applying to [Pg 522] them as hearers), the prophet reminds the people of
Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg—Christology of the Old Testament

Then has God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life.' Acts 11: 18. Repentance seems to be a bitter pill to take, but it is to purge out the bad humour of sin. By some Antinomian spirits it is cried down as a legal doctrine; but Christ himself preached it. From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent,' &c. Matt 4: 17. In his last farewell, when he was ascending to heaven, he commanded that Repentance should be preached in his name.' Luke 24: 47. Repentance is a pure gospel grace.
Thomas Watson—The Ten Commandments

The Second Commandment
Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am o jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of then that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me and keep my commandments.' Exod 20: 4-6. I. Thou shalt not
Thomas Watson—The Ten Commandments

Covenanting Provided for in the Everlasting Covenant.
The duty of Covenanting is founded on the law of nature; but it also stands among the arrangements of Divine mercy made from everlasting. The promulgation of the law, enjoining it on man in innocence as a duty, was due to God's necessary dominion over the creatures of his power. The revelation of it as a service obligatory on men in a state of sin, arose from his unmerited grace. In the one display, we contemplate the authority of the righteous moral Governor of the universe; in the other, we see
John Cunningham—The Ordinance of Covenanting

Solomon's Temple Spiritualized
or, Gospel Light Fetched out of the Temple at Jerusalem, to Let us More Easily into the Glory of New Testament Truths. 'Thou son of man, shew the house to the house of Isreal;--shew them the form of the house, and the fashion thereof, and the goings out hereof, and the comings in thereof, and all the forms thereof, and all the ordinances thereof, and all the forms thereof, and all the laws thereof.'--Ezekiel 43:10, 11 London: Printed for, and sold by George Larkin, at the Two Swans without Bishopgate,
John Bunyan—The Works of John Bunyan Volumes 1-3

Appendix ix. List of Old Testament Passages Messianically Applied in Ancient Rabbinic Writings
THE following list contains the passages in the Old Testament applied to the Messiah or to Messianic times in the most ancient Jewish writings. They amount in all to 456, thus distributed: 75 from the Pentateuch, 243 from the Prophets, and 138 from the Hagiorgrapha, and supported by more than 558 separate quotations from Rabbinic writings. Despite all labour care, it can scarcely be hoped that the list is quite complete, although, it is hoped, no important passage has been omitted. The Rabbinic references
Alfred Edersheim—The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah

The Mercy of God
The next attribute is God's goodness or mercy. Mercy is the result and effect of God's goodness. Psa 33:5. So then this is the next attribute, God's goodness or mercy. The most learned of the heathens thought they gave their god Jupiter two golden characters when they styled him good and great. Both these meet in God, goodness and greatness, majesty and mercy. God is essentially good in himself and relatively good to us. They are both put together in Psa 119:98. Thou art good, and doest good.' This
Thomas Watson—A Body of Divinity

The emphasis which modern criticism has very properly laid on the prophetic books and the prophetic element generally in the Old Testament, has had the effect of somewhat diverting popular attention from the priestly contributions to the literature and religion of Israel. From this neglect Leviticus has suffered most. Yet for many reasons it is worthy of close attention; it is the deliberate expression of the priestly mind of Israel at its best, and it thus forms a welcome foil to the unattractive
John Edgar McFadyen—Introduction to the Old Testament

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