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Smith's Bible Dictionary

is the term used throughout our version for the Hebrew Aram , as well as for the Greek Zupia . Most probably Syria is for Tsyria , the country about Tsur or Tyre which was the first of the Syrian towns known to the Greeks. It is difficult to fix the limits of Syria. The limits of the Hebrew Aram and its subdivisions are spoken of under ARAM. Syria proper was bounded by Amanus and Taurus on the north by the Euphrates and the Arabian desert on the east, by Palestine on the south, by the Mediterranean near the mouth of the Orontes, and then by Phoenicia on the west. This tract is about 300 miles long from north to south, and from 50 to 150 miles broad. It contains an area of about 30,000 square miles. General physical features . --The general character of the tract is mountainous, as the Hebrew name Aram (from a roof signifying "height") sufficiently implies. The most fertile and valuable tract of Syria is the long valley intervening between Libanus and Anti-Libanus. Of the various mountain ranges of Syria, Lebanon possesses the greatest interest. It extends from the mouth of the Litany to Arka , a distance of nearly 100 miles. Anti-Libanus, as the name implies, stands lover against Lebanon, running in the same direction, i.e. nearly north and south, and extending the same length. [LEBANON] The principal rivers of Syria are the Litany and the Orontes. The Litany springs from a small lake situated in the middle of the Coele-Syrian valley, about six miles to the southwest of Baalbek. It enters the sea about five miles north of Tyre. The source of the Orontes is but about 15 miles from that of the Litany. Its modern name is the Nahr-el-Asi , or "rebel stream," an appellation given to it on account of its violence and impetuosity in many parts of its course. The chief towns of Syria may be thus arranged, as nearly as possible in the order of their importance: 1, Antioch; 2, Damascus; 3, Apamea; 4, Seleucia; 5, Tadmor or Palmyra; 6, Laodicea; 7, Epiphania (Hamath); 8, Samosata; 9, Hierapolis (Mabug); 10, Chalybon; 11, Emesa; 12, Heliopolis; 13, Laodicea ad Libanum; 14, Cyrrhus; 15, Chalcis; 16, Poseideum; 17, Heraclea; 18, Gindarus; 19, Zeugma; 20, Thapsacus. Of these, Samosata, Zeugma and Thapsacus are on the Euphrates; Seleucia, Laodicea, Poseideum and Heraclea, on the seashore, Antioch, Apamea, Epiphania and Emesa (Hems), on the Orontes; Heliopolis and Laodicea ad Libanum, in Coele-Syria; Hierapolis, Chalybon, Cyrrhus, Chalcis and Gindarns, in the northern highlands; Damascus on the skirts, and Palmyra in the centre, of the eastern desert. History. --The first occupants of Syria appear to have been of Hamitic descent --Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, etc. After a while the first comers, who were still to a great extent nomads, received a Semitic infusion, while most Probably came to them from the southeast. The only Syrian town whose existence we find distinctly marked at this time is Damascus, (Genesis 14:15; 15:2) which appears to have been already a place of some importance. Next to Damascus must be placed Hamath. (Numbers 13:21; 34:8) Syria at this time, and for many centuries afterward, seems to have been broken up among a number of petty kingdoms. The Jews first come into hostile contact with the Syrians, under that name, in the time of David. (Genesis 15:18; 2 Samuel 8:3,4,13) When, a few years later, the Ammonites determined on engaging in a war with David, and applied to the Syrians for aid, Zolah, together with Beth-rehob sent them 20,000 footmen, and two other Syrian kingdoms furnished 13,000. (2 Samuel 10:6) This army being completely defeated by Joab, Hadadezer obtained aid from Mesopotamia, ibid. ver. 16, and tried the chance of a third battle, which likewise went against him, and produced the general submission of Syria to the Jewish monarch. The submission thus begun continued under the reign of Solomon. (1 Kings 4:21) The only part of Syria which Solomon lost seems to have been Damascus, where an independent kingdom was set up by Rezon, a native of Zobah. (1 Kings 11:23-25) On the separation of the two kingdoms, soon after the accession of Rehoboam, the remainder of Syria no doubt shook off the yoke. Damascus now became decidedly the leading state, Hamath being second to it, and the northern Hittites, whose capital was Carchemish, near Bambuk , third. [DAMASCUS] Syria became attached to the great Assyrian empire, from which it passed to the Babylonians, and from them to the Persians, In B.C. 333 it submitted to Alexander without a struggle. Upon the death of Alexander, Syria became, for the first time the head of a great kingdom. On the division of the provinces among his generals, B.C. 321, Seleucus Nicator received Mesopotamia and Syria. The city of Antioch was begun in B.C. 300, and, being finished in a few years, was made the capital of Seleucus' kingdom. The country grew rich with the wealth which now flowed into it on all sides. Syria was added to the Roman empire by Pompey, B.C. 64, and as it holds an important place, not only in the Old Testament but in the New, some account of its condition under the Romans must be given. While the country generally was formed into a Roman province, under governors who were at first proprietors or quaestors, then procounsuls, and finally legates, there were exempted from the direct rule of the governor in the first place, a number of "free cities" which retained the administration of their own affairs, subject to a tribute levied according to the Roman principles of taxation; secondly, a number of tracts, which were assigned to petty princes, commonly natives, to be ruled at their pleasure, subject to the same obligations with the free cities as to taxation. After the formal division of the provinces between Augustus and the senate, Syria, being from its exposed situation among the province principis , were ruled by legates, who were of consular rank (consulares) and bore severally the full title of "Legatus Augusti pro praetore." Judea occupied a peculiar position; a special procurator was therefore appointed to rule it, who was subordinate to the governor of Syria, but within his own province had the power of a legatus. Syria continued without serious disturbance from the expulsion of the Parthians, B.C. 38, to the breaking out of the Jewish war, A.D. 66. in A.D. 44-47 it was the scene of a severe famine. A little earlier, Christianity had begun to spread into it, partly by means of those who "were scattered" at the time of Stephen's persecution, (Acts 11:19) partly by the exertions of St. Paul. (Galatians 1:21) The Syrian Church soon grew to be one of the most flourishing (Acts 13:1; 15:23,35,41) etc. (Syria remained under Roman and Byzantine rule till A.D. 634, when it was overrun by the Mohammedans; after which it was for many years the scene of fierce contests, and was finally subjugated by the Turks, A.D. 1517, under whose rule it still remains. --ED.)

ATS Bible Dictionary

In Hebrew ARAM, a large district of Asia, lying, in the widest acceptation of the name, between the Mediterranean, Mount Taurus, and the Tigris, and thus including Mesopotamia, that is, in Hebrew, Syria of the two rivers. See ARAM 2. Excepting the Lebanon range, it is for the most part a level country. In the New Testament, Syria may be considered as bounded west and north-west by the Mediterranean and by Mount Taurus, which separates it from Cilicia and Cataonia in Asia Minor, east by the Euphrates, and south by Arabia Deserta and Palestine, or rather Judea, for the name Syria included also the northern part of Palestine.

The valley between the ridges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon was called Coele-Syria and Phoenicia were subject to the king of Babylon, and they afterwards were tributary to the Persian monarchs. After the country fell into the hands of the Romans, Syria was made the province of a proconsul; to which Judea, although governed by its own procurators, was annexed in such a way, that in some cases an appeal might be made to the proconsul of Syria, who had at least the power of removing the procurators from office. Syria is now in the possession of the Turks. Its better portions have been thickly populated from a very early period, and travellers find traces of numerous cities wholly unknown to history.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
(Hebrews Aram), the name in the Old Testament given to the whole country which lay to the north-east of Phoenicia, extending to beyond the Euphrates and the Tigris. Mesopotamia is called (Genesis 24:10; Deuteronomy 23:4) Aram-naharain (=Syria of the two rivers), also Padan-aram (Genesis 25:20). Other portions of Syria were also known by separate names, as Aram-maahah (1 Chronicles 19:6), Aram-beth-rehob (2 Samuel 10:6), Aram-zobah (2 Samuel 10:6, 8). All these separate little kingdoms afterwards became subject to Damascus. In the time of the Romans, Syria included also a part of Palestine and Asia Minor.

"From the historic annals now accessible to us, the history of Syria may be divided into three periods: The first, the period when the power of the Pharaohs was dominant over the fertile fields or plains of Syria and the merchant cities of Tyre and Sidon, and when such mighty conquerors as Thothmes III. and Rameses II. could claim dominion and levy tribute from the nations from the banks of the Euphrates to the borders of the Libyan desert. Second, this was followed by a short period of independence, when the Jewish nation in the south was growing in power, until it reached its early zenith in the golden days of Solomon; and when Tyre and Sidon were rich cities, sending their traders far and wide, over land and sea, as missionaries of civilization, while in the north the confederate tribes of the Hittites held back the armies of the kings of Assyria. The third, and to us most interesting, period is that during which the kings of Assyria were dominant over the plains of Syria; when Tyre, Sidon, Ashdod, and Jerusalem bowed beneath the conquering armies of Shalmaneser, Sargon, and Sennacherib; and when at last Memphis and Thebes yielded to the power of the rulers of Nineveh and Babylon, and the kings of Assyria completed with terrible fulness the bruising of the reed of Egypt so clearly foretold by the Hebrew prophets.", Boscawen.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

an'-ti-ok, (Antiocheia).

(2) Antioch in Syria.-In 301 B.C., shortly after the battle of Ipsus, which made him master of Syria, Seleucus Nicator rounded the city of Antioch, naming it after his father Antiochus. Guided, it was said, by the flight of an eagle, he fixed its site on the left bank of the Orontes (the El-`Asi) about 15 miles from the sea. He also rounded and fortified Seleucia to be the port of his new capital.

The city was enlarged and embellished by successive kings of the Seleucid Dynasty, notably by Seleucus Callinicus (246-226 B.C.), and Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.). In 83 B.C., on the collapse of the Seleucid monarchy, Antioch fell into the hands of Tigranes, king of Armenia, who held Syria until his defeat by the Romans fourteen years later. In 64 B.C. the country was definitely annexed to Rome by Pompey, who granted considerable privileges to Antioch, which now became the capital of the Roman province of Syria. In the civil wars which terminated in the establishment of the Roman principate, Antioch succeeded in attaching itself constantly to the winning side, declaring for Caesar after the fall of Pompey, and for Augustus after the battle of Actium. A Roman element was added to its population, and several of the emperors contributed to its adornment. Already a splendid city under the Seleucids, Antioch was made still more splendid by its Roman patrons and masters. It was the "queen of the East," the third city, after Rome and Alexandria, of the Roman world. About five miles distant from the city was the suburb of Daphne, a spot sacred to Apollo and Artemis.

This suburb, beautified by groves and fountains, and embellished by the Seleucids and the Romans with temples and baths, was the pleasure resort of the city, and "Daphnic morals" became a by-word. From its foundation Antioch was a cosmopolitan city. Though not a seaport, its situation was favorable to commercial development, and it absorbed much of the trade of the Levant. Seleucus Nicator had settled numbers of Jews in it, granting them equal rights with the Greeks (Ant., XII, iii, 1). Syrians, Greeks, Jews, and in later days, Romans, constituted the main elements of the population. The citizens were a vigorous, turbulent and pushing race, notorious for their commercial aptitude, the licentiousness of their pleasures, and the scurrility of their wit. Literature and the arts, however, were not neglected.

In the early history of Christianity, Antioch occupies a distinguished place. The large and flourishing Jewish colony offered an immediate field for Christian teaching, and the cosmopolitanism of the city tended to widen the outlook of the Christian community, which refused to be confined within the narrow limits of Judaism. Nicolas, a proselyte of Antioch, was one of the first deacons (Acts 6:5). Antioch was the cradle of GentileChristianity and of Christian missionary enterprise. It was at the instance of the church at Antioch that the council at Jerusalem decided to relieve GentileChristians of the burden of the Jewish law (Acts 15). Antioch was Paul's starting-point in his three missionary journeys (Acts 13:1; Acts 15:36; 18:23), and thither he returned from the first two as to his headquarters (Acts 14:26; Acts 18:22). Here also the term "Christian," doubtless originally a nickname, was first applied to the followers of Jesus (Acts 11:26). The honorable record of the church at Antioch as the mother-church of GentileChristianity gave her a preeminence which she long enjoyed. The most distinguished of her later sons was John Chrysostom. The city suffered severely from earthquakes, but did not lose its importance until the Arab conquest restored Damascus to the first place among Syrian cities. Antioch still bears its ancient name (Antakiyeh), but is now a poor town with a few thousand inhabitants.

C. H. Thomson


sir'-i-a (Suria (Matthew 4:24 Luke 2:2)):

1. Name and Its Origin

2. Other Designations

3. Physical

(1) The Maritime Plain

(2) First MoUntain Belt

(3) Second Mountain Belt

(4) Great Central Valley

(5) The Eastern Belt

(6) Rivers

(7) Nature of Soil

(8) Flora

(9) Fauna

(10) Minerals

(11) Central Position

4. History

(1) Canaanitic Semites

(2) Sargon of Agade

(3) Babylonian Supremacy

(4) Hittite and Aramean

(5) Hittites and Egyptians

(6) Amarna Period

(7) Rameses II

(8) Philistines

(9) Tiglath-pileser I

(10) Aramean States

(11) Peaceful Development

(12) Shalmaneser II

(13) Tiglath-pileser III

(14) Shalmaneser IV and Sargon

(15) Pharaoh-necoh and Nebuchadnezzar

1. Name and Its Origin:

The name does not occur in the Massoretic Text nor the Peshitta of the Old Testament, but is found in the Septuagint, in the Peshitta of the New Testament and in the Mishna In the Septuagint it represents "Aram" in all its combinations, as Aram-zobah, etc. The name itself first appears in Herodotus vii.63, where he says that "Syrians" and "Assyrians" were the Greek and barbarian designations of the same people. Otherwise he is quite vague in his use of the term. Xenophon is clearer when he (Anab; vii.8, 25) distinguishes between Syria and Phoenicia. Syria is undoubtedly an extension of the name "Suri" the ancient Babylonian designation of a district in North Mesopotamia, but later embracing regions beyond the Euphrates to the North and West, as far as the Taurus. Under the Seleucids, Syria was regarded as coextensive with their kingdom, and the name shrank with its dimensions. Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy give its boundaries as the Taurus Mountains, the Euphrates, the Syro-Arabian desert and the Mediterranean, and the territory within these limits is still politically designated Syria, though popularly Palestine is generally named separately.

2. Other Designations:

Homer (Iliad ii.785) and Hesiod (Theog. 304) call the inhabitants of the district "Arimoi," with which compare the cuneiform "Arimu" or "Aramu" for Arameans. The earliest Assyrian name was "Martu," which Hommel regards as a contraction of "Amartu," the land of the "Amurru" or Amorites. In Egyptian records the country is named "Ruten" or "Luten," and divided into "Lower" and "Upper," the former denoting Palestine and the latter Syria proper.

3. Physical:

(1) The Maritime Plain.

Syria, within the boundaries given, consists of a series of belts of low and high land running North and South, parallel to the Mediterranean. The first of these is the maritime plain. It consists of a broad strip of sand dunes covered by short grass and low bushes, followed by a series of low undulating hills and wide valleys which gradually rise to a height of about 500 ft. This belt begins in North Syria with the narrow Plain of Issus, which extends to a few miles South of Alxandretta, but farther South almost disappears, being represented only by the broader valleys and the smaller plains occupied by such towns as Latakia, Tripolis and Beirut. South of the last named the maritime belt is continuous, being interrupted only where the Ladder of Tyre and Mt. Carmel descend abruptly into the sea. In the Plain of Akka it has a breadth of 8 miles, and from Carmel southward it again broadens out, till beyond Caesarea it has an average of 10 miles. Within the sand dunes the soil is a rich alluvium and readily yields to cultivation. In ancient times it was covered with palm trees, which, being thence introduced into Greece, were from their place of origin named phoinikes.

(2) First Mountain Belt.

From the maritime plain we rise to the first mountain belt. It begins with the Amanus, a branch of the Taurus in the North. Under that name it ceases with the Orontes valley, but is continued in the Nuseiriyeh range (Mt. Cassius, 5,750 ft.), till the Eleutherus valley is reached, and thence rising again in Lebanon (average 5,000 ft.), Jebel Sunnin (8, 780 ft.), it continues to the Leontes or Quasmiyeh. The range then breaks down into the rounded hills of Upper Galilee (3, 500 ft.), extends through the table-land of Western Palestine (2, 500 ft.), and in the South of Judea broadens out into the arid Badiet et-Tih or Wilderness of Wandering.

(3) Second Mountain Belt.

Along with this may be considered the parallel mountain range. Beginning in the neighborhood of Riblah, the chain of anti-Lebanon extends southward to Hermon (9, 200 ft.), and thence stretches out into the plateau of the Jaulan and Hauran, where we meet with the truncated cones of extinct volcanoes and great sheets of basaltic lava, especially in el-Leja and Jebel ed-Druz. The same table-land continues southward, with deep ravines piercing its sides, over Gilead, Moab and Edom.

(4) Great Central Valley.

Between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon lies the great valley of Coele-Syria. It is continued northward along the Orontes and thence stretches away eastward to the Euphrates, while southward it merges into the valleys of the Jordan and the Arabah. From the sources of the Orontes and Leontes at Baalbek (4,000 ft.) it falls away gently to the North; but to the South the descent is rapid. In Merj `Ayun it has sunk to 1,800 ft., at Lake Huleh it is over 7 ft., at the Lake of Tiberias-682 ft., and at the Dead Sea-1, 292 ft., and thence it rises again to the Gulf of Akabah. This great valley was caused by a line of fault or fracture of the earth's crust, with parallel and branching faults. In ancient times the whole valley formed an arm of the sea, and till the Glacial period at the end of the Tertiary (Pleistocene) Age, a lake extended along the whole Jordan valley as far as the Huleh. We can thus understand that the great plain and adjoining valleys consist mainly of alluvial deposits with terraces of gravel and sand on the enclosing slopes.


(5) The Eastern Belt.

To the East of the Anti-Lebanon belt there is a narrow stretch of cultivated land which in some places attains a breadth of several miles, but this is always determined by the distance to which the eastern streams from Anti-Lebanon flow. Around Damascus the Abana (Barada) and neighboring streams have made the district an earthly paradise, but they soon lose themselves in the salt marshes about 10 miles East of the city. Elsewhere the fruitful strip gradually falls away into the sands and rocks of the Syrian desert, barren alike of vegetable and animal life.

(6) Rivers.

The mountain ranges determine the course of the rivers and their length. The streams flowing westward are naturally short and little more than summer torrents. Those flowing to the desert are of the same character, the only one of importance being the Abana, to which Damascus owes its existence. Only the great central valley permits the formation of larger rivers, and there we find the Orontes and Leontes rising within a few feet of each other beside Baalbek, and draining Coele-Syria to the North and South, till breaking through the mountains they reach the sea. The Jordan is the only other stream of any size. In ancient, as also in modern times, the direction of these streams determined the direction of the great trade route from Mesopotamia to Egypt through Coele-Syria and across pal, as also the position of the larger towns, but, not being themselves navigable, they did not form a means of internal communication.

(7) Nature of Soil.

The variation in altitude both above and below the sea-level is naturally conducive to a great variety of climate, while the nature of the disintegrating rocks and the alluvial soil render great productivity possible. Both of the mountain belts in their whole length consist chiefly of cretaceous limestone, mixed with friable limestone with basaltic intrusions and volcanic products. The limestone is highly porous, and during the rainy season absorbs the moisture which forms reservoirs and feeds the numerous springs on both the eastern and western slopes. The rocks too are soft and penetrable and can easily be turned into orchard land, a fact that explains how much that now appears as barren wastes was productive in ancient times as gardens and fruitful fields (Bab Talmud, Megh. 6a).

(8) Flora.

The western valleys and the maritime plain have the flora of the Mediterranean, but the eastern slopes and the valleys facing the desert are poorer. On the southern coasts and in the deeper valleys the vegetation is tropical, and there we meet with the date-palm, the sugar-cane and the sycomore. Up to 1,600 ft., the products include the carob and the pine, after which the vine, the fig and the olive are met with amid great plantations of dwarf oak, till after 3,000 ft. is reached, then cypresses and cedars till the height of 6,200 ft., after which only Alpine plants are found. The once renowned "cedars of Lebanon" now exist only in the Qadisha and Baruk valleys. The walnut and mulberry are plentiful everywhere, and wheat, corn, barley, maize and lentils are widely cultivated. Pasture lands are to be found in the valleys and plains, and even during the dry season sheep, goats and cattle can glean sufficient pasturage among the low brushwood.

(9) Fauna.

The animal world is almost as varied. The fox, jackal, hyena, bear, wolf and hog are met nearly everywhere, and small tigers are sometimes seen (compare 2 Kings 14:9). The eagle, vulture, partridge and blue pigeon are plentiful, and gay birds chirp everywhere. The fish in the Jordan and its lakes are peculiar and interesting. There are in all 22 varieties, the largest being a kind of perch, the coracinus, which is known elsewhere also in the Nile (Josephus, Ant, III, x, 8), and a peculiar old-world variety locally named `Abu-musht.

(10) Minerals.

In both the eastern and the western mountain belts there are abundant supplies of mineral wealth. They consist chiefly of coal, iron, bitumen, asphalt and mineral oil, but they are mostly unworked. In the Jordan valley all the springs below the level of the Mediterranean are brackish, and many of them are also hot and sulfurous, the best known being those Tiberias.

(11) Central Position.

The country, being in virtue of its geographical configuration separated into small isolated districts, naturally tended to break up into a series of petty independent states. Still the central position between the Mesopotamian empires on the one hand and Egypt and Arabia on the other made it the highway through which the trade of the ancient world passed, gave it an importance far in excess of its size or productivity, and made it a subject of contention whenever East and West were ruled by different powers.

4. History:

(1) Canaanitic Semites.

When history begins for us in the 3rd millennium B.C., Syria was already occupied by a Semitic population belonging to the Canaanitic wave of immigration, i.e. such as spoke dialects akin to Hebrew or Phoenician. The Semites had been already settled for a considerable time, for a millennium earlier in Egypt we find Semitic names for Syrian articles of commerce as well as Semites depicted on the Egyptian monuments.

(2) Sargon of Agade.

Omitting as doubtful references to earlier relations between Babylonia and Syria, we may consider ourselves on solid ground in accepting the statements of the Omen Tablets which tell us that Sargon of Agade (2750 B.C.) four times visited the land of Martu and made the peoples of one accord. His son Naram-sin, while extending the empire in other directions maintained his authority here also. Commercial relations were continued, and Babylonia claimed at least a supremacy over Martu, and at times made it effective.

(3) Babylonian Supremacy.

Hammurabi and also his great-grandson Ammisatana designate themselves in inscriptions as kings of Martu, and it is very likely that other kings maintained the traditional limits of the empire. The long-continued supremacy of Babylon not only made itself felt in imposing place-names, but it made Assyrian the language of diplomacy, even between Syria and Egypt, as we see in the Tell el-Amarna Letters.

(4) Hittite and Aramean.

By the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. we find considerable change in the population. The Mitanni, a Hittite people, the remains of whose language are to be found in the still undeciphered inscriptions at Carchemish, Marash, Aleppo and Hamath, are now masters of North Syria.


The great discoveries of Dr. H. Winckler at Boghazkeui have furnished a most important contribution to our knowledge. The preliminary account may be found in OLZ, December 15, 1906, and the Mitteilungen der deutschen orient. Gesellschaft, number 35, December, 1907.

Elsewhere the Aramean wave has become the predominant Semitic element of population, the Canaanitic now occupying the coast towns (Phoenicians) and the Canaan of the Old Testament.

(5) Hittites and Egyptians.

At this time Babylonia was subject to the Kassites, an alien race of kings, and when they fell, about 1100 B.C., they gave place to a number of dynasties of short duration. This gave the Egyptians, freed from the Hyksos rule, the opportunity to lay claim to Syria, and accordingly we find the struggle to be between the Hittites and the Egyptians. Thothmes I, about 1600 B.C.a overran Syria as far as the Euphrates and brought the country into subjection. Thothmes III did the same, and he has left us on the walls of Karnak an account of his campaigns and a list of the towns he conquered.

(6) Amarna Period.

In the reign of Thothmes IV the Hittites began to leave their mountains more and more and to press forward into Central Syria. The Tell el-Amarna Letters show them to be the most serious opponents to the Egyptian authority in Syria and Palestine during the reign of Amenhotep IV (circa 1380 B.C.), and before Seti I came to the throne the power of the Pharaohs had greatly diminished in Syria. Then the Egyptian sphere only reached to Carmel, while a neutral zone extended thence to Kadesh, northward of which all belonged to the Hitites.

(7) Rameses II.

Rameses II entered energetically into the war against Hatesar, king of the Hittites, and fought a battle near Kadesh. He claims a great victory, but the only result seems to have been that his authority was further extended into the neutral territory, and the sphere of Egyptian influence extended across Syria from the Lycus (Dog River) to the South of Damascus. The arrangement was confirmed by a treaty in which North Syria was formally recognized as the Hittite sphere of influence, and, on the part of the Assyrians who were soon to become the heirs of the Hittite pretensions, this treaty formed the basis of a claim against Egypt. About the year 1200 B.C. the Hittites, weakened by this war, were further encroached upon by the movements of northern races, and the empire broke up into a number of small separate independent states.

(8) Philistines.

Among the moving races that helped to weaken and break up the Hittite influence in Syria were the Pulusati (or Purusati), a people whose origin is not yet definitely settled. They entered Syria from the North and overcame all who met them, after which they encamped within the Egyptian sphere of influence. Rameses III marched against them, and he claims a great victory. Later, however, we find them settled in Southeastern Palestine under the name of Philistines. Their settlement at that time is in harmony with the Tell el-Amarna Letters in which we find no trace of them, while in the 11th century B.C. they are there as the inveterate foes of Israel.

(9) Tiglath-pileser I.

Assyria was now slowly rising into power, but it had to settle with Babylon before it could do much in the West. Tiglath-pieser I, however, crossed the Euphrates, defeated the Hittite king of Carchemish, advanced to the coast of Arvad, hunted wild bulls in Lebanon and received gifts from the Pharaoh, who thus recognized him as the successor of the Hittites in North Syria.

(10) Aramean States.

When the Hittite empire broke up, the Arameans in Central Syria, now liberated, set up a number of separate Aramean states, which engaged in war with one another, except when they had to combine against a common enemy. Such states were established in Hamath, Hadrach, Zobah and Rehob. The exact position of Hadrach is still unknown, but Hamath was evidently met on its southern border by Rehob and Zobah, the former extending along the Biqa'a to the foot of Hermon, while the latter stretched along the eastern slopes of Anti-Lebanon and included Damascus, till Rezon broke away and there set up an independent kingdom, which soon rose to be the leading state; Southeast of Hermon were the two smaller Aramean states of Geshur and Maacah.

(11) Peaceful Development.

For nearly three centuries now, Syria and Palestine were, except on rare occasions, left in peace by both Mesopotamia and Egypt. In the 12th century B.C. Babylonia was wasted by the Elamite invasion, and thereafter a prolonged war was carried on between Assyria and Babylonia, and although a lengthened period of peace succeeded, it was wisely used by the peaceful rulers of Assyria for the strengthening of their kingdom internally. In Egypt the successors of Rameses III were engaged against the aggressive Theban hierarchy. During the XXIst Dynasty the throne was usurped by the high priests of Amen, while the XXIId were Lybian usurpers, and the three following dynasties Ethiopian conquerors.

(12) Shalmaneser II.

In the 9th century Asshur-nazirpal crossed the Euphrates and overran the recently established state of Patin in the Plain of Antioch. He besieged its capital and planted a colony in its territory, but the arrangement was not final, for his successor, Shalmaneser II, had again to invade the territory and break up the kingdom into a number of small principalities. Then in 854 B.C. he advanced into Central Syria, but was met at Karkar by a strong confederacy consisting of Ben-hadad of Damascus and his Syrian allies including Ahab of Israel. He claims a victory, but made no advance for 5 years. He then made three unsuccessful expeditions against Damascus, but in 842 received tribute from Tyre, Sidon and Jehu of Israel, as recorded and depicted on the Black Obelisk. It was not till the year 797 that Ramman-nirari, after subduing the coast of Phoenicia, was able to reduce Mari'a of Damascus to obedience at which time also he seems to have carried his conquests through Eastern Palestine as far as Edom. The Assyrian power now suffered a period of decline, during which risings took place at Hadrach and Damascus, and Jeroboam II of Israel was able (2 Kings 14:25) to extend his boundaries northward to the old limits.

(13) Tiglath-pileser III.

It thus happened that Tiglath-pileser III (745-728) had to reconquer the whole of Syria. He captured Arpad after two years' warfare (742-740). Then he divided the territory of Hamath among his generals. At this juncture Ahaz of Judah implored his aid against Rezin of Damascus and Remaliah of Israel. Ahaz was relieved, but was made subject to Assyria. Damascus fell in 732 B.C. and a Great Court was held there, which the tributary princes of Syria, including Ahaz (2 Kings 16:10), attended. The Assyrian empire now possessed the whole of Syria as far as the River of Egypt. Sibahe, however, encouraged revolt in what had been the Egyptian sphere of infiuence and insurrections took place in Phoenicia and Samaria.

(14) Shalmaneser IV and Sargon.

After some difficulty Shalmaneser IV compelled Tyre and Sidon to submit and to pay tribute. Samaria, too, was besieged, but was not taken till Sargon came to the throne in 722. Hamath and Carchemish again rose, but were finally reduced in 720 and 717 respectively. Again in 711 Sargon overran Palestine and broke up a fresh confederacy consisting of Egypt, Moab, Edom, Judah and the Philistines. In 705 the Egyptians under Sibahe and their allies the Philistines under Hanun of Gaza were defeated at Raphia.

The last three rulers of Assyria were in constant difficulties with Babylonia and a great part of the empire was also overrun by the Scythians (circa 626 B.C.), and so nothing further was done in the West save the annexation of the mainland possessions of Phoenicia.

(15) Pharaoh-necoh and Nebuchadnezzar.

In 609 when Assyria was in the death grapple with Babylonia, Pharaoh-necoh took advantage of the situation, invaded Syria, and, defeating Josiah en route, marched to Carchemish. In 605, however, he was there completely defeated by Nebuchadnezzar, and the whole of Syria became tributary to Babylonia. the former Syrian states now appear as Babylonian provinces, and revolts in Judah reduced it also to that position in 586 B.C.

Under Persian rule these provinces remained as they were for a time, but ultimately "Ebir nari" or Syria was formed into a satrapy. The Greek conquest with the Ptolemies in Egypt and the Seleucids in Babylon brought back some of the old rivalry between East and West, and the same unsettled conditions. On the advent of Rome, Syria was separated from Babylonia and made into a province with Antioch as its capital, and then the Semitic civilization which had continued practically untouched till the beginning of the Christian era was brought more and more into contact with the West. With the advent of Islam, Syria fell into Arab hands and Damascus became for a short time (661-750 A.D.) the capital of the new empire, but the central authority was soon removed to Babylonia. Thenceforward Syria sank to the level of a province of the caliphate, first Abbasside (750-1258), then Fatimite (1258-1517), and finally Ottoman.

W. M. Christie


sir'-i-ak: In Daniel 2:4, for the King James Version "Syriack" the Revised Version (British and American) has "Syrian," and in the margin "Or, `in Aramaic.' "


4947. Suria -- Syria, a region N. and East of Pal.
... Suria. 4948 . Syria, a region N. and East of Pal. ... Word Origin of uncertain origin,
perhaps related to Tsor Definition Syria, a region N. and E. of Pal. ...
// - 6k

1154. Damaskos -- Damascus, a city of Syria
... Damascus, a city of Syria. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: Damaskos
Phonetic Spelling: (dam-as-kos') Short Definition: Damascus Definition ...
// - 6k

4581. Seleukeia -- Seleucia, a city of Syria
... Seleucia, a city of Syria. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: Seleukeia
Phonetic Spelling: (sel-yook'-i-ah) Short Definition: Seleucia Definition ...
// - 6k

2958. Kurenios -- Quirinius, a governor of Syria
... Quirinius, a governor of Syria. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration:
Kurenios Phonetic Spelling: (koo-ray'-nee-os) Short Definition: Quirinius ...
// - 6k

4948. Suros -- Syrian
... Syrian. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Suros Phonetic Spelling:
(soo'-ros) Short Definition: Syrian Definition: Syrian, belonging to Syria. ...
// - 6k

9. Abilene -- Abilene, territory northwest of Damascus
... Abilene Phonetic Spelling: (ab-ee-lay-nay') Short Definition: Abilene Definition:
the Abilenian territory, the territory of Abila (in Syria), a small ...
// - 6k

4949. Surophoinikissa -- a Syrophoenician (woman)
... Surophoinikissa Phonetic Spelling: (soo-rof-oy'-nis-sah) Short Definition:
Syrophoenician Definition: Syrophoenician, ie Phoenician (of Syria, in contrast ...
// - 6k

490. Antiocheia -- Antioch, the name of two cities
... Spelling: (an-tee-okh'-i-ah) Short Definition: Antioch Definition: Antioch, (a)
Antioch on the river Orontes, capital of the Province Syria, (b) Pisidian ...
// - 6k

5018. Tarseus -- of Tarsus
... 5018 -- , the leading city in ancient Cilicia (a province between Syria and Asia
Minor), located about 10 miles inland from the coast of present-day Turkey. ...
// - 7k

2791. Kilikia -- Cilicia, a province of Asia Minor
... Cilicia, a Roman province between the Taurus range of mountains and the coast in
the south-east corner of Asia Minor, linked up with the province of Syria. ...
// - 6k

Strong's Hebrew
758. Aram -- Syria and its inhab., also the names of a son of Shem ...
... 757, 758. Aram. 759 . Syria and its inhab., also the names of a son of Shem,
a grandson of Nahor, and an Israelite. ... Aram, Mesopotamia, Syria, Syrians. ...
/hebrew/758.htm - 6k

3560. Kun -- a city in Aram (Syria)
... a city in Aram (Syria). Transliteration: Kun Phonetic Spelling: (koon) Short Definition:
Cun. ... Probably from kuwn; established; Kun, a place in Syria -- Chun. ...
/hebrew/3560.htm - 6k

2371. Chazael -- "God sees," a king of Aram (Syria)
... Chazael or Chazahel. 2372 . "God sees," a king of Aram (Syria). Transliteration:
Chazael or Chazahel Phonetic Spelling: (khaz-aw-ale') Short Definition: Hazael ...
/hebrew/2371.htm - 6k

984. Betach -- a place in Aram (Syria)
... a place in Aram (Syria). Transliteration: Betach Phonetic Spelling: (beh'takh) Short
Definition: Betah. ... The same as betach; Betach, a place in Syria -- Betah. ...
/hebrew/984.htm - 6k

2463. Chelbon -- a place in Aram (Syria)
... 2462, 2463. Chelbon. 2464 . a place in Aram (Syria). Transliteration: Chelbon
Phonetic Spelling: (khel-bone') Short Definition: Helbon. ...
/hebrew/2463.htm - 6k

1834. Dammeseq -- a city in Aram (Syria)
... 1833, 1834. Dammeseq. 1835 . a city in Aram (Syria). Transliteration: Dammeseq
Phonetic Spelling: (dam-meh'-sek) Short Definition: Damascus. ...
/hebrew/1834.htm - 6k

7340. Rechob -- places in Aram (Syria) and Pal., also an Aramean ...
... places in Aram (Syria) and Pal., also an Aramean (Syrian) and an Israelite.
Transliteration: Rechob or Rechob Phonetic Spelling: (rekh-obe') Short Definition ...
/hebrew/7340.htm - 6k

4601. Maakah -- an Israelite name, also a non-Isr. name, also a ...
... an Israelite name, also a non-Isr. name, also a region in Syria. Transliteration:
Maakah or Maakath Phonetic Spelling: (mah-ak-aw') Short Definition: Maacah. ...
/hebrew/4601.htm - 6k

1040. Beth Eden -- "house of pleasure," a place in Aram (Syria)
... Beth Eden. 1041 . "house of pleasure," a place in Aram (Syria). Transliteration:
Beth Eden Phonetic Spelling: (bayth ay'-den) Short Definition: Beth-eden. ...
/hebrew/1040.htm - 6k

1689. Diblah -- a place in Aram (Syria) or Northern Israel
... 1688, 1689. Diblah. 1690 . a place in Aram (Syria) or Northern Israel.
Transliteration: Diblah Phonetic Spelling: (dib-law') Short Definition: Diblah. ...
/hebrew/1689.htm - 6k


Quirinius the Governor of Syria
... CHAPTER 11 QUIRINIUS THE GOVERNOR OF SYRIA. WE come ... He says that it occurred
while Quirinius was administering Syria. The famous ...
/.../ramsay/was christ born in bethlehem/chapter 11 quirinius the governor.htm

Vespasian is Sent into Syria by Nero in Order to Make War with the ...
... CHAPTER 1. Vespasian Is Sent Into Syria By Nero In Order To Make War With
The Jews. 1. When Nero was informed of the Romans' ill ...
/.../chapter 1 vespasian is sent.htm

Monks of Syria and Persia: Battheus, Eusebius, Barges, Halas, Abbo ...
... Chapter XXXIII."Monks of Syria and Persia: Battheus, Eusebius, Barges, Halas, Abbo,
Lazarus, Abdaleus, Zeno, Heliodorus, Eusebius of Carr??, Protogenes, and ...
/.../the ecclesiastical history of sozomenus/chapter xxxiii monks of syria and.htm

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 8
History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 8. <. History
Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 8 G. Maspero. ...
/.../maspero/history of egypt chaldaea syria babylonia and assyria v 8/

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 4
History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 4. <. History
Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 4 G. Maspero. ...
/.../maspero/history of egypt chaldaea syria babylonia and assyria v 4/

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 2
History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 2. <. History
Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 2 G. Maspero. ...
/.../maspero/history of egypt chaldaea syria babylonia and assyria v 2/

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 1
History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 1. <. History
Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 1 G. Maspero. ...
/.../maspero/history of egypt chaldaea syria babylonia and assyria v 1/

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 3
History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 3. <. History
Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 3 G. Maspero. ...
/.../maspero/history of egypt chaldaea syria babylonia and assyria v 3/

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 7
History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 7. <. History
Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 7 G. Maspero. ...
/.../maspero/history of egypt chaldaea syria babylonia and assyria v 7/

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 6
History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 6. <. History
Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 6 G. Maspero. ...
/.../maspero/history of egypt chaldaea syria babylonia and assyria v 6/

Syria (73 Occurrences)
... Mesopotamia is called (Genesis 24:10; Deuteronomy 23:4) Aram-naharain
(=Syria of the two rivers), also Padan-aram (Genesis 25:20). ...
/s/syria.htm - 60k

Coele-syria. Coelesyria, Coele-syria. Coffer . Easton's Bible Dictionary
Hollow ... mountains. Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. COELE-SYRIA. ...
/c/coele-syria.htm - 8k

Syria-maachah (1 Occurrence)
Syria-maachah. Syriamaachah, Syria-maachah. Syrian . Int. Standard Bible
Encyclopedia SYRIA-MAACHAH. sir'-ia-ma'a-ka. See MAACAH; SYRIA. ...
/s/syria-maachah.htm - 7k

Syria-damascus (1 Occurrence)
Syria-damascus. Syriadamascus, Syria-damascus. Syriamaachah .
Multi-Version Concordance Syria-damascus (1 Occurrence). ...
/s/syria-damascus.htm - 6k

Serpent (40 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary (Hebrews nahash; Gr. ophis), frequently noticed in
Scripture. More than forty species are found in Syria and Arabia. ...
/s/serpent.htm - 46k

Rezin (11 Occurrences)
... Firm; a prince, a king of Syria, who joined Pekah (qv) in an invasion of the kingdom
of Judah (2 Kings 15:37; 16:5-9; Isaiah 7:1-8). Ahaz induced Tiglath ...
/r/rezin.htm - 13k

Arvad (2 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary Wandering, (Ezek. 27:8), a small island and city on the
coast of Syria, mentioned as furnishing mariners and soldiers for Tyre. ...
/a/arvad.htm - 11k

Arvadites (1 Occurrence)
... ar'-vad, ar'-vad-its ('arwadh; Arados; modern Ruad): An island city off the coast
of Syria some 30 miles North of Tripolis, and the race inhabiting it. ...
/a/arvadites.htm - 10k

... death of Alexander, Ptolemy seized the satrapy of Egypt as his share (1 Maccabees
1:6;). Now commenced the long hostilities between Egypt and Syria, Ptolemy on ...
/p/ptolemy.htm - 17k

... Hollow Syria, the name (not found in Scripture) given by the Greeks to the extensive
valley, about 100 miles long, between the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon ...
/c/coelesyria.htm - 8k

Does war with Syria have anything to do with the end times? |

What is the significance of Syria/Aram in the Bible? |

Who is the king of the North in Daniel 11? |

Syria: Dictionary and Thesaurus |

Bible ConcordanceBible DictionaryBible EncyclopediaTopical BibleBible Thesuarus
Syria (73 Occurrences)

Matthew 4:24
The report about him went out into all Syria. They brought to him all who were sick, afflicted with various diseases and torments, possessed with demons, epileptics, and paralytics; and he healed them.

Luke 2:2
This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria.

Acts 15:23
They wrote these things by their hand: "The apostles, the elders, and the brothers, to the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia: greetings.

Acts 15:41
He went through Syria and Cilicia, strengthening the assemblies.

Acts 18:18
Paul, having stayed after this many more days, took his leave of the brothers, and sailed from there for Syria, together with Priscilla and Aquila. He shaved his head in Cenchreae, for he had a vow.

Acts 20:3
When he had spent three months there, and a plot was made against him by Jews as he was about to set sail for Syria, he determined to return through Macedonia.

Acts 21:3
When we had come in sight of Cyprus, leaving it on the left hand, we sailed to Syria, and landed at Tyre, for there the ship was to unload her cargo.

Galatians 1:21
Then I came to the regions of Syria and Cilicia.

Judges 10:6
The children of Israel again did that which was evil in the sight of Yahweh, and served the Baals, and the Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Sidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines; and they forsook Yahweh, and didn't serve him.

2 Samuel 8:6
Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus; and the Syrians became servants to David, and brought tribute. Yahweh gave victory to David wherever he went.

2 Samuel 8:12
of Syria, and of Moab, and of the children of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah.

2 Samuel 15:8
For your servant vowed a vow while I abode at Geshur in Syria, saying,'If Yahweh shall indeed bring me again to Jerusalem, then I will serve Yahweh.'"

1 Kings 10:29
A chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for one hundred fifty; and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and for the kings of Syria, did they bring them out by their means.

1 Kings 11:25
He was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon, besides the mischief that Hadad did : and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Syria.

1 Kings 15:18
Then Asa took all the silver and the gold that were left in the treasures of the house of Yahweh, and the treasures of the king's house, and delivered them into the hand of his servants; and king Asa sent them to Ben Hadad, the son of Tabrimmon, the son of Hezion, king of Syria, who lived at Damascus, saying,

1 Kings 19:15
Yahweh said to him, "Go, return on your way to the wilderness of Damascus. When you arrive, you shall anoint Hazael to be king over Syria.

1 Kings 20:1
Ben Hadad the king of Syria gathered all his army together; and there were thirty-two kings with him, and horses and chariots: and he went up and besieged Samaria, and fought against it.

1 Kings 20:20
They each killed his man. The Syrians fled, and Israel pursued them. Ben Hadad the king of Syria escaped on a horse with horsemen.

1 Kings 20:22
The prophet came near to the king of Israel, and said to him, "Go, strengthen yourself, and mark, and see what you do; for at the return of the year the king of Syria will come up against you."

1 Kings 20:23
The servants of the king of Syria said to him, "Their god is a god of the hills; therefore they were stronger than we. But let us fight against them in the plain, and surely we shall be stronger than they.

1 Kings 22:1
They continued three years without war between Syria and Israel.

1 Kings 22:3
The king of Israel said to his servants, "You know that Ramoth Gilead is ours, and we are still, and don't take it out of the hand of the king of Syria?"

1 Kings 22:31
Now the king of Syria had commanded the thirty-two captains of his chariots, saying, Fight neither with small nor great, except only with the king of Israel.

2 Kings 5:1
Now Naaman, captain of the army of the king of Syria, was a great man with his master, and honorable, because by him Yahweh had given victory to Syria: he was also a mighty man of valor, but he was a leper.

2 Kings 5:5
The king of Syria said, "Go now, and I will send a letter to the king of Israel." He departed, and took with him ten talents of silver, and six thousand pieces of gold, and ten changes of clothing.

2 Kings 6:8
Now the king of Syria was warring against Israel; and he took counsel with his servants, saying, "My camp will be in such and such a place."

2 Kings 6:11
The heart of the king of Syria was very troubled about this. He called his servants, and said to them, "Won't you show me which of us is for the king of Israel?"

2 Kings 6:23
He prepared great feast for them. When they had eaten and drunk, he sent them away, and they went to their master. The bands of Syria stopped raiding the land of Israel.

2 Kings 6:24
It happened after this, that Benhadad king of Syria gathered all his army, and went up and besieged Samaria.

2 Kings 7:5
They rose up in the twilight, to go to the camp of the Syrians. When they had come to the outermost part of the camp of the Syrians, behold, there was no man there.

2 Kings 8:7
Elisha came to Damascus; and Benhadad the king of Syria was sick. It was told him, saying, "The man of God has come here."

2 Kings 8:9
So Hazael went to meet him, and took a present with him, even of every good thing of Damascus, forty camels' burden, and came and stood before him, and said, "Your son Benhadad king of Syria has sent me to you, saying,'Will I recover from this sickness?'"

2 Kings 8:13
Hazael said, "But what is your servant, who is but a dog, that he should do this great thing?" Elisha answered, "Yahweh has shown me that you will be king over Syria."

2 Kings 8:28
He went with Joram the son of Ahab to war against Hazael king of Syria at Ramoth Gilead: and the Syrians wounded Joram.

2 Kings 8:29
King Joram returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which the Syrians had given him at Ramah, when he fought against Hazael king of Syria. Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Joram the son of Ahab in Jezreel, because he was sick.

2 Kings 9:14
So Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat the son of Nimshi conspired against Joram. (Now Joram was keeping Ramoth Gilead, he and all Israel, because of Hazael king of Syria;

2 Kings 9:15
but king Joram was returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which the Syrians had given him, when he fought with Hazael king of Syria.) Jehu said, "If this is your thinking, then let no one escape and go out of the city, to go to tell it in Jezreel."

2 Kings 12:17
Then Hazael king of Syria went up, and fought against Gath, and took it; and Hazael set his face to go up to Jerusalem.

2 Kings 12:18
Jehoash king of Judah took all the holy things that Jehoshaphat and Jehoram and Ahaziah, his fathers, kings of Judah, had dedicated, and his own holy things, and all the gold that was found in the treasures of the house of Yahweh, and of the king's house, and sent it to Hazael king of Syria: and he went away from Jerusalem.

2 Kings 13:3
The anger of Yahweh was kindled against Israel, and he delivered them into the hand of Hazael king of Syria, and into the hand of Benhadad the son of Hazael, continually.

2 Kings 13:4
Jehoahaz begged Yahweh, and Yahweh listened to him; for he saw the oppression of Israel, how that the king of Syria oppressed them.

2 Kings 13:7
For he didn't leave to Jehoahaz of the people save fifty horsemen, and ten chariots, and ten thousand footmen; for the king of Syria destroyed them, and made them like the dust in threshing.

2 Kings 13:17
He said, "Open the window eastward;" and he opened it. Then Elisha said, "Shoot!" and he shot. He said, "Yahweh's arrow of victory, even the arrow of victory over Syria; for you shall strike the Syrians in Aphek, until you have consumed them."

2 Kings 13:19
The man of God was angry with him, and said, "You should have struck five or six times. Then you would have struck Syria until you had consumed it, whereas now you shall strike Syria just three times."

2 Kings 13:22
Hazael king of Syria oppressed Israel all the days of Jehoahaz.

2 Kings 13:24
Hazael king of Syria died; and Benhadad his son reigned in his place.

2 Kings 15:37
In those days Yahweh began to send against Judah Rezin the king of Syria, and Pekah the son of Remaliah.

2 Kings 16:5
Then Rezin king of Syria and Pekah son of Remaliah king of Israel came up to Jerusalem to war: and they besieged Ahaz, but could not overcome him.

2 Kings 16:6
At that time Rezin king of Syria recovered Elath to Syria, and drove the Jews from Elath; and the Syrians came to Elath, and lived there, to this day.

2 Kings 16:7
So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglath Pileser king of Assyria, saying, "I am your servant and your son. Come up, and save me out of the hand of the king of Syria, and out of the hand of the king of Israel, who rise up against me."

1 Chronicles 18:6
Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus; and the Syrians became servants to David, and brought tribute. Yahweh gave victory to David wherever he went.

2 Chronicles 1:17
They brought up and brought out of Egypt a chariot for six hundred pieces of silver, and a horse for one hundred fifty: and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and the kings of Syria, did they bring them out by their means.

2 Chronicles 16:2
Then Asa brought out silver and gold out of the treasures of the house of Yahweh and of the king's house, and sent to Ben Hadad king of Syria, who lived at Damascus, saying,

2 Chronicles 16:7
At that time Hanani the seer came to Asa king of Judah, and said to him, Because you have relied on the king of Syria, and have not relied on Yahweh your God, therefore is the army of the king of Syria escaped out of your hand.

2 Chronicles 18:10
Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah made him horns of iron, and said, Thus says Yahweh, With these you shall push the Syrians, until they be consumed.

2 Chronicles 18:30
Now the king of Syria had commanded the captains of his chariots, saying, Fight neither with small nor great, save only with the king of Israel.

2 Chronicles 20:2
Then there came some who told Jehoshaphat, saying, There comes a great multitude against you from beyond the sea from Syria; and behold, they are in Hazazon Tamar (the same is En Gedi).

2 Chronicles 22:5
He walked also after their counsel, and went with Jehoram the son of Ahab king of Israel to war against Hazael king of Syria at Ramoth Gilead: and the Syrians wounded Joram.

2 Chronicles 22:6
He returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which they had given him at Ramah, when he fought against Hazael king of Syria. Azariah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Jehoram the son of Ahab in Jezreel, because he was sick.

2 Chronicles 24:23
It happened at the end of the year, that the army of the Syrians came up against him: and they came to Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes of the people from among the people, and sent all the spoil of them to the king of Damascus.

2 Chronicles 28:5
Therefore Yahweh his God delivered him into the hand of the king of Syria; and they struck him, and carried away of his a great multitude of captives, and brought them to Damascus. He was also delivered into the hand of the king of Israel, who struck him with a great slaughter.

2 Chronicles 28:23
For he sacrificed to the gods of Damascus, which struck him; and he said, Because the gods of the kings of Syria helped them, therefore will I sacrifice to them, that they may help me. But they were the ruin of him, and of all Israel.

Isaiah 7:1
It happened in the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, that Rezin the king of Syria, and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, went up to Jerusalem to war against it, but could not prevail against it.

Isaiah 7:2
It was told the house of David, saying, "Syria is allied with Ephraim." His heart trembled, and the heart of his people, as the trees of the forest tremble with the wind.

Isaiah 7:4
Tell him,'Be careful, and keep calm. Don't be afraid, neither let your heart be faint because of these two tails of smoking torches, for the fierce anger of Rezin and Syria, and of the son of Remaliah.

Isaiah 7:5
Because Syria, Ephraim, and the son of Remaliah, have plotted evil against you, saying,

Isaiah 7:8
For the head of Syria is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rezin; and within sixty-five years Ephraim shall be broken in pieces, so that it shall not be a people;

Isaiah 17:3
The fortress shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus, and the remnant of Syria. They will be as the glory of the children of Israel," says Yahweh of Armies.

Jeremiah 35:11
But it happened, when Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up into the land, that we said, Come, and let us go to Jerusalem for fear of the army of the Chaldeans, and for fear of the army of the Syrians; so we dwell at Jerusalem.

Ezekiel 16:57
before your wickedness was uncovered, as at the time of the reproach of the daughters of Syria, and of all who are around her, the daughters of the Philistines, who do despite to you all around.

Ezekiel 27:16
Syria was your merchant by reason of the multitude of your handiworks: they traded for your wares with emeralds, purple, and embroidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and rubies.

Hosea 12:12
And Jacob fled into the country of Syria, and Israel served for a wife, and for a wife he kept sheep.

Amos 1:5
I will break the bar of Damascus, and cut off the inhabitant from the valley of Aven, and him who holds the scepter from the house of Eden; and the people of Syria shall go into captivity to Kir," says Yahweh.



Syria: A Saviour Raised up for Israel Against

Syria: Abana and Pharpar Rivers of

Syria: And It Included Phoenicia

Syria: Army of, Miraculously Routed

Syria: Asa Sought Aid of, Against Israel

Syria: Benhadad King of, Besieged Samaria

Syria: Besieged Samaria Again

Syria: Called Aram, from the Son of Shem

Syria: Confederates With Nebuchadnezzar

Syria: Conquest of by David

Syria: Conquest of by Jeroboam

Syria: Conquest of by Tiglath-Pileser, King of Assyria

Syria: Damascus the Capital of

Syria: David: Dedicated the Spoils of

Syria: David: Destroyed a Second Army of

Syria: David: Destroyed the Army of, Which Assisted Hadadezer

Syria: David: Garrisoned and Made Tributary

Syria: David: Obtained Renown by his Victory Over

Syria: David: Sent Joab Against the Armies of, Hired by the Ammonites

Syria: Death of the King of, and the Cruelty of his Successor

Syria: During the Time of Abraham It Seems to Have Embraced the Region Between the Tigris River and the Euphrates River

Syria: Elijah Anointed Hazael King Over, by Divine Direction

Syria: Elisha Predicted to Joash his Three Victories Over

Syria: God Smote With Blindness Those Sent Against Elisha by The

Syria: Gospel Preached and Many Churches Founded In

Syria: Governed by Kings

Syria: Including Padan-Aram

Syria: Inhabitants of a Commercial People

Syria: Inhabitants of a Warlike People

Syria: Inhabitants of an Idolatrous People

Syria: Inhabitants of Called Syrians

Syria: Inhabitants of Called Syrians of Damascus

Syria: Inhabitants of Spoke the Syriack Language

Syria: Israel Delivered Into the Hands of, for the Sins of Jehoahaz

Syria: Israel Followed the Idolatry of

Syria: Joined With Israel Against Ahaz and Besieged Jerusalem

Syria: Joram King of Israel in Seeking to Recover Ramothgilead From,

Syria: Minor Kingdoms Within the Region: And in the Title of

Syria: Minor Kingdoms Within the Region: Aram-Rehob, Also Called Beth-Rehob

Syria: Minor Kingdoms Within the Region: Aram-Zobah, Also Called, Zobah and Zoba

Syria: Minor Kingdoms Within the Region: Damascus

Syria: Minor Kingdoms Within the Region: Geshur

Syria: Minor Kingdoms Within the Region: Hamath

Syria: More Properly the Country Around Damascus

Syria: Originally Included Mesopotamia

Syria: Paul Goes To, With Letters to Apprehend the Christians

Syria: Paul Preaches In

Syria: People of, Colonized in Samaria by the King of Assyria

Syria: Prophecies Concerning

Syria: Prophecies Respecting: Burning of Damascus

Syria: Prophecies Respecting: Ceasing to be a Kingdom

Syria: Prophecies Respecting: Destruction of Its Inhabitants

Syria: Prophecies Respecting: Destruction of Rezin King of

Syria: Prophecies Respecting: Its Calamities, the Punishments of Its Sins

Syria: Prophecies Respecting: Its History in Connection With the Macedonia Empire

Syria: Prophecies Respecting: Its Inhabitants to be Captives

Syria: Prophecies Respecting: Plundering of Damascus

Syria: Prophecies Respecting: Terror and Dismay In, Occasioned by Its Invasion

Syria: Retook Elath and Drove out the Jews

Syria: Subdued and Governed by the Romans

Syria: Subdued and Its Inhabitants Taken Captive by Assyria

Syria: The Fame of Jesus Extended Over

Syria: The Israelites: At Peace With, for Three Years

Syria: The Israelites: Craftily Drawn Into a League With

Syria: The Israelites: Defeated By, and Ahab Slain

Syria: The Israelites: Encouraged and Assisted by God Overcame a Second Time

Syria: The Israelites: Forewarned of Invasion By, at the Return of the Year

Syria: The Israelites: Harassed by Frequent Incursions of

Syria: The Israelites: Heard the Secrets of, from Elisha

Syria: The Israelites: Insignificant Before

Syria: The Israelites: Under Ahab Encouraged and Assisted by God, Overcame

Syria: The Israelites: Under Ahab Sought to Recover Ramoth-Gilead From

Syria: The Roman Province of, Included the Land of Canaan

Related Terms


Syria-maachah (1 Occurrence)

Syria-damascus (1 Occurrence)

Serpent (40 Occurrences)

Rezin (11 Occurrences)

Arvad (2 Occurrences)

Arvadites (1 Occurrence)




Demetrius (3 Occurrences)

Parthians (1 Occurrence)


Remaliah (13 Occurrences)

Cyrenius (1 Occurrence)

Ben-hadad (27 Occurrences)

Brick (10 Occurrences)

Inflicted (20 Occurrences)

Thaddaeus (2 Occurrences)



Cilicia (8 Occurrences)



Naaman (19 Occurrences)

Amorites (82 Occurrences)

Benhadad (24 Occurrences)

Victory (71 Occurrences)

Syrian (12 Occurrences)

Pekah (11 Occurrences)

Arameans (61 Occurrences)

Zobah (15 Occurrences)

Wounds (57 Occurrences)

Frost (9 Occurrences)

Tammuz (1 Occurrence)

Riblah (12 Occurrences)

Rezon (3 Occurrences)

Rehob (12 Occurrences)

Elath (6 Occurrences)

Decapolis (3 Occurrences)

Drawer (1 Occurrence)


Pharaoh-necoh (3 Occurrences)

Pul (3 Occurrences)

Plow (11 Occurrences)

Besieged (34 Occurrences)

Cili'cia (8 Occurrences)

Acco (2 Occurrences)

Artaxerxes (14 Occurrences)

Aretas (1 Occurrence)

Hadad (38 Occurrences)

Gold (429 Occurrences)

Defeat (16 Occurrences)

Coney (2 Occurrences)

Syrians (63 Occurrences)

Rain (118 Occurrences)

Jehoahaz (22 Occurrences)

Joram (26 Occurrences)

Jizreel (30 Occurrences)

Aquila (7 Occurrences)

Ben (40 Occurrences)

Immanuel (3 Occurrences)

Ramoth (30 Occurrences)


Shepherd (76 Occurrences)

Mesopotamia (8 Occurrences)

Antioch (21 Occurrences)

Oil (281 Occurrences)

Dye (1 Occurrence)

Ramoth-gilead (20 Occurrences)

Lebanon (66 Occurrences)

Zoan (7 Occurrences)


Recover (37 Occurrences)


Deliverance (86 Occurrences)

Ahaziah (34 Occurrences)

Ramothgilead (19 Occurrences)

Jehoram (27 Occurrences)

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