Luke 24
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.
Luke 24:1. Τίνες, some) viz. other women, who had not come from Galilee.

And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.
Luke 24:2. Τὸν λίθον, the stone) Luke mentioned nothing previously as to the stone; but takes for granted in the narrative itself that the stone had been rolled to the mouth of the sepulchre. (Comp. John 11:38)

And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.
And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments:
Luke 24:4. Ἄνδρες, men) viz. angels. See Luke 24:23. Comp. Matthew 28:5.[268]

[268] Where mention is made only of one angel, viz. the angel who spoke—E. and T.

And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?
Luke 24:5. Τὸν ζῶντα) Him, who not merely has returned to life, but is altogether the living One. [The truth of the resurrection is most surely established.—V. g.]—μετὰ τῶν νεκρῶν, with [‘among’] the dead) in the state and position (condition) of the dead.

He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,
Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.
Luke 24:7. Τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, the Son of man) This is repeated from the discourses which were delivered by the Lord before His passion. But the Lord Himself did not give Himself the appellation, Song of Solomon of man, after His resurrection, but either spake in the first person, or else employed the express appellation, Christ.—ἁμαρτωλῶν, of sinful men) viz. the Gentiles.

And they remembered his words,
And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest.
It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and other women that were with them, which told these things unto the apostles.
Luke 24:10. ἦναἱ) So [a Plural nominative follows after a Singular verb and nominative, the verb Plural being supplied from the Singular verb] Deuteronomy 27:9, καὶ ἐλάλησε Μωϋσῆς καὶ οἱ ἱερεῖςλέγοντες. So 1 Corinthians 9:6.[269] The names are given in this place in particular, as being those of the witnesses to the fact, and not sooner.

[269] μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίανὡς οἱ λοιποὶ ἀπόστολοι, viz. ἔχουσιν; However Be read ἦσαν δὲ, and so Lachm. and Tisch. AD omit the words. Inferior Uncial MSS. and the best Versions ab Vulg. Memph. Theb. read ἦν δὲ.—E. and T.

And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not.
Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.
Luke 24:12. Ἀπῆλθε πρὸς ἑαυτὸν, departed to his own home[270]) As to the matter of fact, comp. Luke 24:34; as to the phrase, comp. the note on John 20:10 [ἀπῆλθον πρὸς αὐτοὺς οἱ μαθηταὶ, “the disciples departed to their own homes”].

[270] As the French chez lui. But Dab Euseb. Can. omit Luke 24:12, which may have come from John 20:4-6 : Tisch. omits it. However ABc Vulg;. Memph. Theb. retain the verse. B omits κείμενα, and A and Vulg. MS. Amiat. omit. μονα. Lachm. brackets the verse. Vulg. and Engl. Vers. connect πρὸς ἑαυτὸν not with ἀπῆλθε, but with θαυμάζων, wondering in (with) himself.—E. and T.

And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.
And they talked together of all these things which had happened.
And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.
But their eyes were holden that they should not know him.
Luke 24:16. Ἐκρατοῦντο, were holden) The antithesis is in Luke 24:31, διηνοίχθησαν, their eyes were opened.

And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad?
Luke 24:17. Εἶπε, He said) It is the part of wisdom, to pass with ease into profitable conversation. John 4:7-8 [Jesus taking occasion from the well, and His request to the woman of Samaria for a drink, to pass to the subject of the living water]; Acts 8:30 [Philip and the Eunuch reading Isaiah].

And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?
Luke 24:18. Ὁ εἷς, the one) The name of the other of the two is not given; who notwithstanding was also dear to the Lord. So too John 1:35; John 1:40 [where “two disciples” are mentioned, of whom Andrew alone is named]. The godly are mentioned not for their own sake, but for the sake of others. [Long ago Orige[271] indeed considered Peter to be the companion of Cleopas who was meant (L. contra Celsum, p. 105); but in that case either Peter would have spoken, or at least Cleopas would have more distinctly appealed to Peter’s report of what he had seen at the sepulchre in ch. Luke 24:24. There is to be added the fact, that both of these disciples are expressly distinguished from “the Eleven” in Luke 24:33. Harduin suspects that Cephas, Galatians 2:9; 1 Corinthians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 1:9; 1 Corinthians 1:15, was a disciple distinct from Peter; and from the passage, 1 Corinthians 15:5, that he was the companion of Cleopas, Op. sel., p. 928. But from 1 Corinthians 15:9, it is not obscurely evident that Paul speaks of Kephas as an apostle. One may more reasonably raise the question, whether the Simon to whom the Lord appeared was not a disciple distinct, as well from the companion of Cleopas, as also from Peter or, as he is otherwise named, Kephas, inasmuch as the appearance of our Lord was vouchsafed to the latter before that Peter returned to the rest from the walk mentioned in ch. Luke 24:12. Whichever of these views be correct, at least it is certain that the Saviour appeared to the women first; then to some of the disciples not distinguished with the dignity of apostles; in fine, to Simon Peter, who even most of all stood in need of this grace, and to the rest of the apostles, who as well as Peter ought to have conceived faith sooner than all the rest, and that too a faith of a more elevated character.—Harm., p. 603.]—παροικεῖς, art Thou only a new-comer [‘stranger’]) Jesus here seems to have retained the dialect of Galilee, inasmuch as Cleopas does not take Him to be a citizen of Jerusalem.

[271] rigen (born about 186 A.D., died 253 A.D., a Greek father: two-thirds of the N. Test. are quoted in his writings). Ed. Vinc. Delarue, Paris. 1733, 1740, 1759.

And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:
Luke 24:19. Τὰ περὶ) The things concerning Jesus. This clause, after the description of the Subject (Jesus) has been interposed, is explained in detail in Luke 24:20 : with which comp. Luke 24:14; Luke 24:18 at the end.

And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.
But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.
Luke 24:21. Σὺν πᾶσι τούτοις, besides all these things) Hebr. עם כל זה.—τρίτην, third) Therefore alter the death of Jesus they seem to have entertained some hope on the first and second day, which however they lay aside on that very day on which the hope is fulfilled.—ἄγει) used impersonally.

Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre;
And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.
And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not.
Luke 24:24. [Εἶπον, had said) viz. that the body was not in the sepulchre.—V. g.]—αὐτὸν) Himself.

Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken:
Luke 24:25. Ἀνόητοι, fools) [void of mind]. In proportion as faith is the slower or the speedier in being entertained, the worse or the better is the νοῦς (from which comes ἀνόητοι) or mind, Galatians 3:1 [O foolish Galatians]; John 1:49 [Nathanael’s quick confession, “Thou art the Son of God, Thou art the King of Israel”]. [A salutary reproof.—V. g.]—[βραδεῖς, slow) We ought to be quick in believing, where we have sufficient warrant of any word of GOD.—V. g.]—ἐπὶ, on the authority of [respecting]) The words of the prophets are open to you, and yet ye do not believe. Almost in the same way διὰ is used in John 4:41-42 [“Many more believed because of His own word (διὰ τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ);—not because of (διὰ) thy saving”].

Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?
Luke 24:26. Ταῦτα, these things) The very things which ye take up as causes to create doubt, are characteristic marks of the Christ.—ἔδει, ought) because it was so foretold.—παθεῖν, to suffer) It is respecting this point of faith that the slowness of belief on the part of men most especially exhibits itself. See Matthew 16:22 [Peter, after his noble confession of Christ’s divinity, on hearing of His cross, saith, “Be it far from Thee, Lord,” etc.].—[τὸν Χριστὸν, the Christ) the Redeemer of Israel, Luke 24:21.—V. g.]—εἰσελθεῖν, to enter) which could not have been accomplished in any other way.

And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
Luke 24:27. Τὰ περὶ ἑαυτοῦ, the things concerning Himself) namely, the things which had been written. There is no doubt but that the passages alluded to were the same as those which the apostles subsequently were wont especially to quote.

And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went: and he made as though he would have gone further.
Luke 24:28. Προσεποιεῖτο) He made (acted) as though He was about to go farther; and He had been about to go farther, had not they besought Him, and perhaps had been about to appear to them in another way.

But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them.
Luke 24:29. Μεῖνον, abide) They were beseeching Him, from love for His own sake, and from hospitality, that He should not venture to proceed on His journey by night.

And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them.
Luke 24:30. Λαβὼν, having taken) according to His wonted mode.

And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight.
Luke 24:31. Ἄφαντος ἐγένετο) He vanished out of their sight. This too showed that it was He. The former appearances of Jesus after His resurrection were of shorter continuance, in order that the move room (scope) might be left for faith.

And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?
Luke 24:32. Καιομένη, burning) much and for long. [A most blessed sensation!—V. g.]—ἦν, was) They observed the fact more afterwards than during the actual continuance of the burning sensation.—ἐλάλει ἡμῖν) He spake to us. This means more than with us [which is however the Engl. rendering].—[διήνοιγεν, He opened) The Scripture is opened out, when “the understanding” is opened, Luke 24:45.—V. g.]

And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them,
Luke 24:33. Αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ, the same hour) of the night or the evening. Now no longer have they any fear of the journey by night, which they had previously dissuaded their unknown companion against in Luke 24:29.—[ὑπέστρεψαν, they returned) actively.—V. g.]—συνηθροισμένους, gathered together) as persons who meet to consult on some sudden emergency.

Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon.
Luke 24:34. Λέγοντας, saying) Appearances had taken place on both sides, whereby they to whom they had been vouchsafed mutually confirmed one another. So the distinct appearances to Paul on the one hand, and to Ananias on the other, mutually confirmed one another, Acts 9:10; Acts 9:12; and to Cornelius and Peter respectively, Luke 10:3; Luke 10:10; and to Moses and to Aaron, Exodus 4:27-28.—ὄντως, in very deed) They cast away their former doubt, but not completely; for in Luke 24:37, “they are affrighted at His appearance as if they had seen a ghost.” Mark 16:13 [They (the two) went, and told it to the residue; neither believed they them].

And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread.
Luke 24:35. Ἐγνώσθη) He made Himself known. So אתודע, LXX. γνωσθήσομαι, Numbers 12:6, “I will make myself known.” So εὑρέθην (“præsto fui”), I caused myself to be found, Romans 10:20.

And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
Luke 24:36. Ἔστη) stood: before that they perceived Him coming.—ἐν μέσῳ, in the midst) This is more significant than εἰς μέσον, into the midst, would be.—εἰρήνη, peace) A form of salutation, transferred by the Saviour to higher things: Ephesians 2:17, [He came and preached peace to you which were afar off, etc.]—ἐγώ εἰμι, μὴ φοβεῖσθε, it is I, be not afraid) The Versions present these four words, in accordance with the MS. of Wolf, with great unanimity: and they are in consonance with Luke 24:38-39.[272]

[272] GPc Vulg. read the words. But ABDab Memph. (1 MS.) Theb. omit them. Lachm. retains them in brackets.—E. and T.

But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit.
And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts?
Luke 24:38. Διαλογισμοἰ, thoughts) The Lord throws open their thoughts.—ἀναβαίνουσιν, rise up) A well chosen phrase. Our thoughts are hidden from us, before that they rise up.

Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
Luke 24:39. Αὐτὸς) I Myself, Jesus.—πνεῦμα, a spirit) See Luke 24:37.

And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.
Luke 24:40. Τὰς χεῖρας, His hands) well known to them. The senses of touch and sight assure the soul.

And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?
Luke 24:41. Ἀπιστούντων, whilst they were distrusting the evidence of their senses) They no doubt believed at the time, otherwise they would not have rejoiced: but the full exercise of their faith was being retarded by their joy. Strong affection and intent knowledge mutually impede one another.

And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.
And he took it, and did eat before them.
Luke 24:43. Ἔφαγεν, He did eat) freely, without any necessity: on this account He did not also drink.

And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.
Luke 24:44. Εἶπε, He said) namely, on the day of the Ascension. See Luke 24:50, with which comp. Acts 1:2; Acts 1:5; Acts 1:9.[273]—ἔτι, as yet) It was a thing sad to hear of, before that it took place; but now most joyous, when it has taken place.—ἐν τῷ νόμῳ, κ.τ.λ., in the law, etc.) Here we have the division of the Hebrew Bible [the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa],—προφήταις, the Prophets) the former and later Prophets. It is in reference to the former ones, that the Prophets are put before the Psalms. As to the Twelve especially, see Sir 49:12.—ψαλμοῖς, the Psalms) The Hagiographa, the foremost place in which is occupied by the Psalms, a remarkable portion of the Scriptures, in which also the subject of Christ and His kingdom is most copiously discussed. See note on Hebrews 10:8 [which quotes Psalm 40:6, “Sacrifice and offering Thou didst not desire—then said I, Lo, I come,” etc.; proving the great authority of the Psalms].

[273] Verse 47, “Beginning at Jerusalem.” accords with Acts 1:8, “Ye shall be witnesses to Me, both in Jerusalem,” etc., spoken just before the Ascension.—E. and T.

Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures,
Luke 24:45. Διήνοιξεν, He opened) Many obstacles which are in our mind need to be removed out of the way, in order that we may understand. See Acts 16:14 [“The Lord opened the heart of Lydia, that she attended to the things which were spoken of Paul”]. He opened both by His power and by His words.—τὰς γραφὰς, the Scriptures) See with what power, not long after, Peter brought forward the Scriptures in Acts 2 et seqq.; as also with what wisdom in Acts 1:16; Acts 1:20 [the prophecy and direction of the psalm as to Judas].

And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:
Luke 24:46. Καὶ σὕτως) and therefore thus.

And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
Luke 24:47. Ἀρξάμενον) The Accusative absolute, as in Acts 10:37 [οἴδατε τὸ γενόμενον ῥῆμαἀρξάμενον ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας].

And ye are witnesses of these things.
Luke 24:48-49. Μάρτυρεςἐπαγγελίαν, witnesses—the promise) John 15:27; John 15:26 [“Ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with Me from the beginning—When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, He shall testify of Me”].

And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.
Luke 24:49. Ἀποστέλλω, I send) The Present. Comp. note on John 20:17.[274]—τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν, the promise) i.e. the Spirit, who has been promised; Acts 1:4; Acts 2:33, notes. [Ammonius says, ὑπισχνεῖται is applied to one who undertakes or engages that he will give to him who has asked; ἘΠΑΓΓΈΛΛΕΤΑΙ, of one who of himself promises or engages to give.] This was clear to them from the conversation He had with them, John 14:16-17 [I will pray the Father, and He shall give you another Comforter, that He may abide with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth, which the world cannot receive, etc.]. For ἈΠΟΣΤΈΛΛΕΣΘΑΙ is for the most part used of persons; ΠΈΜΠΕΣΘΑΙ, of the person and of the thing. The abstract for the concrete is suitable to those times of the beginning of the Church; comp. note on Matthew 4:17. [The first preaching was in the abstract, “The kingdom of God is at hand;” afterwards in the concrete, “The King,” or “Messiah.” The former suited the hidden beginnings of the Gospel; the latter, the glorification of Jesus.] So presently, δύναμιν, power.—ΤΟῦ ΠΑΤΡΌς ΜΟΥ, of My Father) The Father promised and gave His gifts through His Son.—Ἱερουσαλὴμ, Jerusalem) For it was there that they were about to receive the promise. [If they had not received this direction, they without a doubt would have left the city.—V. g.]—ἐνδύσησθε, until ye be clothed [endued]) suddenly and completely. We are naked whilst destitute of the heavenly power. They had heretofore been purified, viz. through the word, John 15:3 [“Now ye are clean through the word, which I have spoken unto you”]: now clothing also is promised to them.—ἐξ ὕψους, from on high) to which Jesus ascended. The height, put for heaven, is an expression from sacred poetry. See Ephesians 4:8, from Psalm 68:18 [“When He ascended up on high, He led captivity captive”].

[274] “I ascend unto My Father,” not “I will ascend.” The time of His ascension, and, here in Luke, of the consequent sending down of the Spirit, being regarded as already present. So as to the second Coming, I come, ἔρχομαι, not I will come, Revelation 22:20. See note on Luke 9:51.—E. and T.

And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.
Luke 24:50. [Ἐξήγαγεν δὲ, and He led them forth) Mark and Luke make express mention of the Ascension in its own proper place; John (ch. John 20:17), as also Matthew (ch. Matthew 28:18; Matthew 28:20), only in passing. He who believes the Resurrection of Christ, must, as a consequence, believe all things that follow upon it. Therefore the Gospel History strictly reaches in its extent up to the Resurrection: Acts 1:22 (“Beginning from the baptism of John unto that same day that He was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of His resurrection”); Romans 10:9 [“If thou—shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved”].—Harm., p. 613.]—ἔξω, out) to that place, where He suffered. [A remarkable place was the Mount of Olives, Acts 1:12, and Bethany especially so, in respect of all those things which are recorded in John 11:1, et seqq. (as to the raising of Lazarus), Luke 12:1, et seqq. (the anointing at Bethany); Luke 19:29, et seqq. (the royal entry into Jerusalem from Bethany); Matthew 21:17 (His lodging at Bethany during Passion week), Luke 24:3 (His prophecy on the Mount of Olives as to the end of Jerusalem and of the world): Luke 22:39 (His agony in Gethsemane, which is at the side of Olivet). Comp. Zechariah 14:4.[275]—Harm., p. 612.]—εἰς) towards.—ἑπᾴρας, having lifted up) The gesture of one in the act of praying or pronouncing a blessing. He did not now any more lay on them His hands. Comp. John 20:22, note. [After His resurrection He did not touch mortals, although He allowed Himself to be handled by His disciples. “He breathed on them.”]—εὐλόγησεν, He blessed, them) This benediction appertains to all believers; for the Eleven, and those who were with them, were at the time the representatives of these.

[275] “His feet shall stand in that day on the Mount of Olives.” From which it appears the same mount is to be the scene of His return, as of His Ascension. Comp. Acts 1:11.—E. and T.

And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.
And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:
Luke 24:52. Προσκυνήσαντες, having worshipped Him) In that attitude, which is described in Acts 1:11 [“Looked stedfastly toward heaven—Stand ye gazing up into heaven”]. Therefore Christ must be God.—χαρᾶς, with joy) No longer now were they missing with sad regret the sight of the Lord. This was a prelude to Pentecost. John 14:28 [“If ye loved Me, ye would rejoice, because I said, I go unto the Father”]. [No doubt they rejoiced both concerning what was passed, and concerning what was promised in time to come.—Harm., p. 613.] So it is recorded of the Eunuch and Philip, Acts 8:39 [“The Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip: and he (the eunuch) went on his way rejoicing”].

And were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.
Luke 24:53. Διαπαντὸς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, continually in the temple) ch. Luke 2:37 [“Anna—departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day”].—αἰνοῦντες, praising) which is the fruit of joy.[276]

[276] Bengel, J. A. (1860). Vol. 2: Gnomon of the New Testament (M. E. Bengel & J. C. F. Steudel, Ed.) (A. R. Fausset, Trans.) (117–225). Edinburgh: T&T Clark.

Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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