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Smith's Bible Dictionary

The object of this article will be to touch briefly on --

  1. The doctrine of Scripture as to the nature and efficacy of prayer;
  2. Its directions as to time, place and manner of prayer;
  3. Its types and examples of prayer.
  4. Scripture does not give any theoretical explanation of the mystery which attaches to prayer. The difficulty of understanding real efficacy arises chiefly from two sources: from the belief that man lives under general laws, which in all cases must be fulfilled unalterably; and the opposing belief that he is master of his own destiny, and need pray for no external blessing. Now, Scripture, while, by the doctrine of spiritual influence it entirely disposes of the latter difficulty, does not so entirely solve that part of the mystery which depends on the nature of God. It places it clearly before us, and emphasizes most strongly those doctrines on which the difficulty turns. Yet while this is so, on the other hand the instinct of prayer is solemnly sanctioned and enforced on every page. Not only is its subjective effect asserted, but its real objective efficacy, as a means appointed by God for obtaining blessing, is both implied and expressed in the plainest terms. Thus, as usual in the case of such mysteries, the two apparently opposite truths are emphasized, because they are needful: to man's conception of his relation to God; their reconcilement is not, perhaps cannot be, fully revealed. For, in fact, it is involved in that inscrutable mystery which attends on the conception of any free action of man as necessary for the working out of the general laws of God's unchangeable will. At the same time it is clearly implied that such a reconcilement exists, and that all the apparently isolated and independent exertions of man's spirit in prayer are in some way perfectly subordinated to the one supreme will of God, so as to form a part of his scheme of providence. It is also implied that the key to the mystery lies in the fact of man's spiritual unity with God in Christ, and of the consequent gift of the Holy Spirit. So also is it said of the spiritual influence of the Holy Ghost on each individual mind that while "we know not what to pray for, "the indwelling" Spirit makes intercession for the saints, according to the will of God." (Romans 8:26,27) Here, as probably in still other cases, the action of the Holy Spirit on the soul is to free agents what the laws of nature are to things inanimate, and is the power which harmonizes free individual action with the universal will of God.
  5. There are no directions as to prayer given in the Mosaic law: the duty is rather taken for granted, as an adjunct to sacrifice, than enforced or elaborated. It is hardly conceivable that, even from the beginning public prayer did not follow every public sacrifice. Such a practice is alluded to in (Luke 1:10) as common; and in one instance, at the offering of the first-fruits, it was ordained in a striking form. (26:12-15) In later times it certainly grew into a regular service both in the temple and in the synagogue. But, besides this public prayer, it was the custom of all at Jerusalem to go up to the temple, at regular hours if possible, for private prayer, see (Luke 18:10; Acts 3:1) and those who were absent were wont to "open their windows toward Jerusalem," and pray "toward" the place of God's presence. (1 Kings 8:46-49; Psalms 5:7; 28:2; 138:2; Daniel 6:10) The regular hours of prayer seem to have been three (see) (Psalms 55:17; Daniel 6:10) "the evening," that is the ninth hour (Acts 3:1; 10:3) the hour of the evening sacrifice, (Daniel 9:21) the "morning," that is, the third hour (Acts 2:15) that of the morning sacrifice; and the sixth hour, or "noonday." Grace before meat would seem to have been a common practice. See (Matthew 15:36; Acts 27:35) The posture of prayer among the Jews seems to have been most often standing, (1 Samuel 1:26; Matthew 6:5; Mark 11:25; Luke 18:11) unless the prayer were offered with especial solemnity and humiliation, which was naturally expressed by kneeling, (1 Kings 8:54) comp. 2Chr 6:13; Ezra 9:5; Psal 95:8; Dani 6:10 Or prostration. (Joshua 7:6; 1 Kings 18:42; Nehemiah 8:6)
  6. The only form of prayer given for perpetual use in the Old Testament is the one in (26:5-15) connected with the offering of tithes and first-fruits, and containing in simple form the important elements of prayer, acknowledgment of God's mercy, self-dedication and prayer for future blessing. To this may perhaps be added the threefold blessing of (Numbers 6:24-26) couched as it is in a precatory form, and the short prayer of Moses, (Numbers 10:35,36) at the moving and resting of the cloud the former of which was the germ of the 68th Psalm. But of the prayers recorded in the Old Testament the two most remarkable are those of Solomon at the dedication of the temple, (1 Kings 8:23-58) and of Joshua the high priest, and his colleagues, after the captivity. (Nehemiah 9:5-38) It appears from the question of the disciples in (Luke 11:1) and from Jewish tradition, that the chief teachers of the day gave special forms of prayer to their disciples as the badge of their discipleship and the best fruits of their learning. All Christian prayer is, of course, based on the Lord's Prayer; but its spirit is also guided by that of his prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded by St. John, (John 17:1) ... the beginning of Christ's great work of intercession. The influence of these prayers is more distinctly traced in the prayers contained in the epistles, see (Romans 16:25-27; Ephesians 3:14-21; Philemon 1:3-11; Colossians 1:9-15; Hebrews 13:20,21; 1 Peter 5:10,11) etc., than in those recorded in the Acts. The public prayer probably in the first instance took much of its form and style from the prayers of the synagogues. In the record on prayer accepted and granted by God, we observe, as always, a special adaptation to the period of his dispensation to which they belong. In the patriarchal period, they have the simple and childlike tone of domestic application for the ordinary and apparently trivial incidents of domestic life. In the Mosaic period they assume a more solemn tone and a national bearing, chiefly that of direct intercession for the chosen people. More rarely are they for individuals. A special class are those which precede and refer to the exercise of miraculous power. In the New Testament they have a more directly spiritual hearing. It would seem the intention of Holy Scripture to encourage all prayer more especially intercession, in all relations and for all righteous objects.
ATS Bible Dictionary

Is the offering of the emotions and desires of the soul to God, in the name and through the mediation of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. It is the communion of the heart with God through the aid of the Holy Spirit, and is to the Christian the very life of the soul. Without this filial spirit, no one can be a Christian, Job 21:15 Psalm 10:4.

In all ages God has delighted in the prayers of his saints. From the promulgation of the law, the Hebrews did not intermit public worship daily in the tabernacle or the temple. It consisted in offering the evening and morning sacrifices, every day, accompanied with prayers by the priests and Levites in that holy edifice. Every day also the priests offered sacrifices, incense, offerings, and first fruits for individuals; they performed ceremonies for the redemption of the firstborn, or for purification from pollution; in a word, the people came thither from all parts to discharge their vows and to perform their devotions, not only on great and solemn days, but also on ordinary days; but nothing of this was performed without prayer, 1 Chronicles 23:30 Nehemiah 11:17 Luke 1:10. Compare also 1 Kings 8:22, and the Psalms of David for temple worship.

Pious men were accustomed to pray thrice in the day, at fixed hours, Psalm 55:7 Daniel 6:10. See HOURS. Social, family, and secret prayer were all habitual with Bible saints; as well as brief ejaculations in the midst of their ordinary business, Nehemiah 2:4. No uniform posture in prayer is enjoined in the Bible; standing with the hands outspread, 1Ki 8...22, bowing the head, Genesis 24:26, kneeling, Luke 22:41, and prostration on the ground, Matthew 26:39, were all practiced. Prayer should be offered with submission to God's will, fervently, perseveringly, and with a confiding reliance on God in Christ; it should be accompanied by humble confession and hearty thanksgiving, and with supplications for all living men, as well as for our friends and those nearest to us. Habitual prayer to God is duty enjoined upon us by sound reason and by right affections; and he who lives without it thereby reveals the atheism of his heart. God requires all men thus to worship him, Ezekiel 36:37 Matthew 7:1-11 Philippians 4:6 1 Timothy 2:1-3 James 1:5; and for neglecting this duty there can be no sufficient excuse. It is often said that prayer cannot alter the unchangeable purposes of God; but the great scheme of his providence embraces every prayer that shall be offered, as well as the answer it shall receive. It is objected that prayer cannot increase his knowledge of our wants, nor his readiness to supply them; and that in any case he will do what is for the best. But he deems it best to grant many blessings in answer to prayer, which otherwise he would withhold; "He will be very gracious unto thee at the voice of thy cry; when he shall hear it, he will answer thee." The words of David will be those of every truly praying man: "This poor man cried, and the Lord heard him, and delivered him out of all his troubles," Psalm 34:6.

False and formed religion makes a merit of its prayers, as though "much speaking" and "vain repetitions" could atone for heartlessness. Hypocrites also are wont to pray chiefly that they may have praise of men. These sins Christ reproves in Matthew 6:5-15, and gives to his disciples the form of the Lord's prayer as a beautiful model. In Ephesians 6:18 1 Thessalonians 5:17 1 Timothy 2:8, Paul directs that believers should pray in all places and at all times, lifting up pure hands towards heaven, and blessing God for all things, whether in eating, drinking, or what ever they do; and that every thing be done to the glory of God, 1 1 Corinthians 10:31. In a word, our Savior has recommended to us to pray without ceasing, Luke 18:1 21:36.

Easton's Bible Dictionary
Is converse with God; the intercourse of the soul with God, not in contemplation or meditation, but in direct address to him. Prayer may be oral or mental, occasional or constant, ejaculatory or formal. It is a "beseeching the Lord" (Exodus 32:11); "pouring out the soul before the Lord" (1 Samuel 1:15); "praying and crying to heaven" (2 Chronicles 32:20); "seeking unto God and making supplication" (Job 8:5); "drawing near to God" (Psalm 73:28); "bowing the knees" (Ephesians 3:14).

Prayer presupposes a belief in the personality of God, his ability and willingness to hold intercourse with us, his personal control of all things and of all his creatures and all their actions.

Acceptable prayer must be sincere (Hebrews 10:22), offered with reverence and godly fear, with a humble sense of our own insignificance as creatures and of our own unworthiness as sinners, with earnest importunity, and with unhesitating submission to the divine will. Prayer must also be offered in the faith that God is, and is the hearer and answerer of prayer, and that he will fulfil his word, "Ask, and ye shall receive" (Matthew 7:7, 8; 21:22; Mark 11:24; John 14:13, 14), and in the name of Christ (16:23, 24; 15:16; Ephesians 2:18; 5:20; Colossians 3:17; 1 Peter 2:5).

Prayer is of different kinds, secret (Matthew 6:6); social, as family prayers, and in social worship; and public, in the service of the sanctuary.

Intercessory prayer is enjoined (Numbers 6:23; Job 42:8; Isaiah 62:6; Psalm 122:6; 1 Timothy 2:1; James 5:14), and there are many instances on record of answers having been given to such prayers, e.g., of Abraham (Genesis 17:18, 20; 18:23-32; 20:7, 17, 18), of Moses for Pharaoh (Exodus 8:12, 13, 30, 31; Exodus 9:33), for the Israelites (Exodus 17:11, 13; 32:11-14, 31-34; Numbers 21:7, 8; Deuteronomy 9:18, 19, 25), for Miriam (Numbers 12:13), for Aaron (Deuteronomy 9:20), of Samuel (1 Samuel 7:5-12), of Solomon (1 Kings 8; 2 Chronicles 6), Elijah (1 Kings 17:20-23), Elisha (2 Kings 4:33-36), Isaiah (2 Kings 19), Jeremiah (42:2-10), Peter (Acts 9:40), the church (12:5-12), Paul (28:8).

No rules are anywhere in Scripture laid down for the manner of prayer or the attitude to be assumed by the suppliant. There is mention made of kneeling in prayer (1 Kings 8:54; 2 Chronicles 6:13; Psalm 95:6; Isaiah 45:23; Luke 22:41; Acts 7:60; 9:40; Ephesians 3:14, etc.); of bowing and falling prostrate (Genesis 24:26, 52; Exodus 4:31; 12:27; Matthew 26:39; Mark 14:35, etc.); of spreading out the hands (1 Kings 8:22, 38, 54; Psalm 28:2; 63:4; 88:9; 1 Timothy 2:8, etc.); and of standing (1 Samuel 1:26; 1 Kings 8:14, 55; 2 Chronicles 20:9; Mark 11:25; Luke 18:11, 13).

If we except the "Lord's Prayer" (Matthew 6:9-13), which is, however, rather a model or pattern of prayer than a set prayer to be offered up, we have no special form of prayer for general use given us in Scripture.

Prayer is frequently enjoined in Scripture (Exodus 22:23, 27; 1 Kings 3:5; 2 Chronicles 7:14; Psalm 37:4; Isaiah 55:6; Joel 2:32; Ezek. 36:37, etc.), and we have very many testimonies that it has been answered (Psalm 3:4; 4:1; 6:8; 18:6; 28:6; 30:2; 34:4; 118:5; James 5:16-18, etc.).

"Abraham's servant prayed to God, and God directed him to the person who should be wife to his master's son and heir (Genesis 24:10-20).

"Jacob prayed to God, and God inclined the heart of his irritated brother, so that they met in peace and friendship (Genesis 32:24-30; 33:1-4).

"Samson prayed to God, and God showed him a well where he quenched his burning thirst, and so lived to judge Israel (Judges 15:18-20).

"David prayed, and God defeated the counsel of Ahithophel (2 Samuel 15:31; 16:20-23; 17:14-23).

"Daniel prayed, and God enabled him both to tell Nebuchadnezzar his dream and to give the interpretation of it (Dan. 2: 16-23).

"Nehemiah prayed, and God inclined the heart of the king of Persia to grant him leave of absence to visit and rebuild Jerusalem (Nehemiah 1:11; 2:1-6).

"Esther and Mordecai prayed, and God defeated the purpose of Haman, and saved the Jews from destruction (Esther 4:15-17; 6:7, 8).

"The believers in Jerusalem prayed, and God opened the prison doors and set Peter at liberty, when Herod had resolved upon his death (Acts 12:1-12).

"Paul prayed that the thorn in the flesh might be removed, and his prayer brought a large increase of spiritual strength, while the thorn perhaps remained (2 Corinthians 12:7-10).

"Prayer is like the dove that Noah sent forth, which blessed him not only when it returned with an olive-leaf in its mouth, but when it never returned at all.", Robinson's Job.

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
1. (n.) One who prays; a supplicant.

2. (n.) The act of praying, or of asking a favor; earnest request or entreaty; hence, a petition or memorial addressed to a court or a legislative body.

3. (n.) The act of addressing supplication to a divinity, especially to the true God; the offering of adoration, confession, supplication, and thanksgiving to the Supreme Being; as, public prayer; secret prayer.

4. (n.) The form of words used in praying; a formula of supplication; an expressed petition; especially, a supplication addressed to God; as, a written or extemporaneous prayer; to repeat one's prayers.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

The Mosaic law did not regulate the offering of prayer, but fully recognized its spontaneous character. In what manner or how far back in Jewish history the sacrificial prayer, mentioned in Luke 1:10, originated no one knows. In the days of Christ it had evidently become an institution. But ages before that, stated hours of prayer were known and religiously observed by all devout Jews. It evidently belonged to the evolutionary process of Jewish worship, in connection with the temple-ritual. Devout Jews, living at Jerusalem, went to the temple to pray (Luke 18:10 Acts 3:1). The pious Jews of the Diaspora opened their windows "toward Jerus" and prayed "toward" the place of God's presence (1 Kings 8:48 Daniel 6:10 Psalm 5:7). The regular hours of prayer, as we may infer from Psalm 55:17 and Daniel 6:10, were three in number. The first coincided with the morning sacrifice, at the 3rd hour of the morning, at 9 AM therefore (Acts 2:15). The second was at the 6th hour, or at noon, and may have coincided with the thanksgiving for the chief meal of the day, a religious custom apparently universally observed (Matthew 15:36 Acts 27:35). The 3rd hour of prayer coincided with the evening sacrifice, at the ninth hour (Acts 3:1; Acts 10:30). Thus every day, as belonging to God, was religiously subdivided, and regular seasons of prayer were assigned to the devout believer. Its influence on the development of the religious spirit must have been incalculable, and it undoubtedly is, at least in part, the solution of the riddle of the preservation of the Jewish faith in the cruel centuries of its bitter persecution. Mohammedanism borrowed this feature of worship from the Jews and early Christians, and made it one of the chief pillars of its faith.

Henry E. Dosker


An Old Testament pseudepigraph, number 3 in the Stichometry of Nicephorus (Westcott, Canon of the New Testament(7), 571), with the length given as 1,100 lines, and number 5 in the List of Sixty Books (Westcott, 568). The work is lost, and the only quotations are in Origen (In Joan., ii.25, English in Ante-Nicene Fathers, IX, 341; In Gen., iii.9, 12). Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are said to have been created before every work, but Jacob-Israel is the greatest, "the firstborn of every living creature," the "first minister in God's presence," greater than the angel with whom he wrestled. The purport may be anti-Christian, the patriarchs exalted in place of Christ; compare, perhaps, Enoch 71 (but not so in Charles' 1912 text), but Origen's favorable opinion of the book proves that the polemic could not have been very direct.


GJV, 4th edition, III, 359-60; Dillmann in PRE, 2nd edition, XII, 362; compare Beer in 3rd edition, XVI, 256; Fabricius, Codex pseudep. Vet. Test., I, 761-71.

Burton Scott Easton


(Matthew 6:9-13 Luke 11:2-4): Prayer occupied an important place in the life and the teachings of Jesus. He was emphatically a man of prayer, praying frequently in private and in public, and occasionally spending whole nights in communion with His heavenly Father. He often spoke to His disciples on the subject of prayer, cautioning them against ostentation, or urging perseverance, faith and large expectation, and He gave them a model of devotion in the Lord's prayer.

1. Twofold Form:

This prayer is given by the evangelists in two different forms and in two entirely different con nections. In Matthew's account the prayer is given as a part of the Sermon on the Mount and in connection with a criticism of the ostentation usual in the prayers of the hypocrites and the heathen. Luke introduces the prayer after the Galilean ministry and represents it as given in response to a request from one of His disciples, "Lord teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples." It gives us, however, no note of time or place, and it is quite possible that the incident which it records took place much earlier. The later form is much shorter than that of Matthew and the common parts differ materially in language.

In view of the differences, the reader instinctively inquires whether the prayer was given on two different occasions in these different connections, or the evangelists have presented the same incident in forms derived from different sources, or modified the common source to suit their immediate purposes.

If the prayer was given only on one occasion, there is little doubt that Luke preserves the true historical circumstances, though not necessarily the accurate point of time or place, or the exact form of language. Such a request made at the close of the prayer of Jesus would be natural, and the incident bears every mark of reality. On the other hand, it would be reasonable to assume that the author of Matthew's source, remembering the incident, incorporated the prayer in the Sermon on the Mount as an illustration of the injunctions concerning prayer.

There are many reasons for regarding the Sermon as a collection of sayings spoken on different occasions and summarized for convenience in teaching and memorizing. There is, however, no proof that the prayer was given but once by Jesus. We need not suppose that His disciples were always the same, and we know that He gave instruction in prayer on various occasions. He may have given the model prayer on one occasion spontaneously and at another time on the request of a disciple. It is probable that the two evangelists, using the same or different sources, presented the prayer in such connection as best suited the plan of their narratives. In any case, it is rather remarkable that the prayer is not quoted or directly mentioned anywhere else in the New Testament.

2. Arrangement:

In addition to the opening salutation, "Our Father who art in heaven," the Lord's Prayer consists of six petitions. These are arranged in three equal parts. In the first part, the thought is directed toward God and His great purposes. In the second part, the attention is directed to our condition and wants. The two sets of petitions are closely related, and a line of progress runs through the whole prayer. The petitions of the first part are inseparable, as each includes the one which follows. As the hallowing of God's name requires the coming of His kingdom, so the kingdom comes through the doing of His will. Again, the first part calls for the second, for if His will is to be done by us, we must have sustenance, forgiveness and deliverance from evil. If we seek first the glory of God, the end requires our good. While we hallow His name we are sanctified in Him. The doxology of Matthew and our rituals is not found in the leading manuscripts and is generally regarded as an ancient liturgical addition. For this reason it is omitted by the Revised Version (British and American).

3. Sources:

The sources of the two accounts cannot be known with certainty. It is hardly correct to say that one account is more original than the other. The original was spoken in Aramaic, while both of the reports are certainly based on Greek sources. The general agreement in language, especially in the use of the unique term epiousios shows that they are not independent translations of the Aramaic original.

4. Special Expressions:

Three expressions of the prayer deserve special notice. The words, "Our Father," are new in the Bible and in the world. When God is called Father in the Old Testament, He is regarded as Father of the nation, not of the individual. Even in the moving prayer of Isaiah 63:16 (the King James Version), "Doubtless thou art our father," the connection makes clear that the reference is to God in the capacity of Creator. The thought of God as the Father of the individual is first reached in the Apocrypha: "O Lord, Father and Master of my life" (Sirach 23:1; compare The Wisdom of Solomon 2:16; 14:3). Here also the notion is veiled in the thought of God as Creator. It was left for Jesus the Son to give us the privilege of calling God "Our Father."

Of the adjective epiousion, "daily" or "needful," neither the origin nor the exact meaning is or is likely to be known. Whether it is qualitative or temporal depends on its derivation from epeinai, or epienai. Our translators usually follow the latter, translating "daily." the American Standard Revised Version gives "needful" as a marginal rendering.

The phrase apo tou ponerou, is equally ambiguous. Since the adjective may be either masculine or neut., it is impossible to decide whether "from the evil one" or "from the evil" was intended. The probability is in favor of the masculine. The Oriental naturally thought of evil in the concrete, just as we think of it in the abstract. For this reason the Authorized rendering "from evil" is more real to us. The evil deprecated is moral, not physical.

5. Purpose: The Lord's Prayer was given as a lesson in prayer. As such this simple model surpasses all precepts about prayer. It suggests to the child of God the proper objects of prayer. It supplies suitable forms of language and illustrates the simple and direct manner in which we may trustingly address our heavenly Father. It embraces the elements of all spiritual desire summed up in a few choice sentences. For those who are not able to bring their struggling desires to birth in articulate language it provides an instructive form. To the mature disciple it ever unfolds with richer depths of meaning. Though we learn these words at our mother's knee, we need a lifetime to fill them with meaning and all eternity to realize their answer.


The literature of this subject is very extensive. For brief treatment the student will consult the relative sections in the commentaries on the Gospels of Matthew and Luke and in the Lives of Christ and the articles on the Lord's Prayer in the several Bible diets. A collection of patristic comment is given by G. Tillmann in his Das Gebet nach der Lehre der Heiligen dargestellt, 2 volumes, Freiburg, 1876. The original comments may be found in any of the standard collections of the Church Fathers.

Among historical studies may be mentioned, F.H. Chase, The Lord's Prayer in the Early Church, Cambridge, 1891, and G. Dalman, Die Worte Jesu, I, Leipzig, 1898, English translation, Edinburgh, 1902.

Among the numerous interpretative treatments, the following are some of the more important: N. Hall, The Lord's Prayer, Edinburgh, 1889; H.J. Van Dyke, The Lord's Prayer, New York, 1891; J. Ruskin, Letters to the Clergy on the Lord's Prayer and the Church, late edition, New York, 1896; E. Wordsworth, Thoughts on the Lord's Prayer, New York, 1898; C.W. Stubbs, Social Teachings of the Lord's Prayer, London, 1900; A.B. Bruce, The Training of the Twelve, chapter vi, 4th edition, New York, 1905; L.T. Chamberlain, The True Doctrine of Prayer, New York, 1906; F.M. Williams, Spiritual Instructions on the Lord's Prayer, New York, 1907.

Russell Benjamin Miller


1. Name

2. Canonicity and Position

3. Contents

4. Original Language

5. Authenticity

6. Author and Motive

7. Date

8. Text and Versions

(1) Greek

(2) Latin


The Prayer of Manasses purports to be, and may in reality be, the prayer of that king mentioned in 2 Chronicles 33:13, 18 f.

1. Name:

In Cod.

A. it is called simply "A Prayer of Manasses," in the London Polyglot "A Prayer of Manasses, King of the Jews." Its title in the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) is "A Prayer of Manasses, King of Judah, when He Was Held Captive in Babylon." In Baxter's Apocrypha, Greek and English this Prayer appears at the end with the heading "A Prayer of Manasses, son of Ezekias" (equals Hezekiah).

2. Canonicity and Position:

The Greek church is the only one which has consistently reckoned this Prayer as a part of its Bible. Up to the time of the Council of Trent (1545-1563 A.D.), it formed a part of the Vulgate, but by that council it was relegated with 3 and 4 (1 and 2) Esdras to the appendix (which included uncanonical scriptures), "lest they should become wholly lost, since they are occasionally, cited by the Fathers and are found in printed copies. Yet it is wholly absent from the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) of Sixtus V, though it is in the Appendix of the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) of Clement VIII. Its position varies in manuscripts, versions and printed editions of the Septuagint. It is most frequently found among the odes or canticles following the Psalter, as in Codices Alexandrinus, T (the Zurich Psalter) and in Ludolf's Ethiopic Psalter. In Swete's Septuagint the Psalter of Solomon followed by the odes (Odai), of which The Prayer of Manasseh is the 8th, appear as an Appendix after 4 Maccabees in volume III. It was placed after 2 Chronicles in the original Vulgate, but in the Romanist Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) it stands first, followed by 3 and 4 (1 and 2) Esdras in the apocryphal Appendix. It is found in all manuscripts of the Armenian Bible, where, as in Swete's Septuagint, it is one of many odes. Though not included in Coverdale's Bible or the Geneva VS, it was retained (at the close of the Apocrypha) in Luther's translation, in Mathew's Bible and in the Bishops' Bible, whence it passed into our English Versions of the Bible.

3. Contents:

According to 2 Chronicles 33 (compare 2 Kings 21) Manasseh was exiled by the Assyrians to Babylon as a punishment for his sins. There he became penitent and earnestly prayed to God for pardon and deliverance. God answered his prayer and restored him to Jerusalem and to the throne. Though the prayer is mentioned in 2 Chronicles 33:13, 18, it is not given, but this lack has been supplied in the The Prayer of Manasseh of the Apocrypha. After an opening invocation to the God of Abraham, Isaac, Judah and their righteous seed, the Creator of all things, most high, yet compassionate, who has ordained repentance, not for perfect ones like the patriarchs who did not need it, but for the like of the person praying, there follows a confession of sin couched for the most part in general terms, a prayer for pardon and a vow to praise God forever if this prayer is answered.

4. Original Language:

The bulk of scholars (Fritzsche, Reuss, Schurer, Ryssel, etc.) agree that this Prayer was composed in Greek. The Greek recension is written in a free, flowing and somewhat rhetorical style, and it reads like an original work, not like a translation. Though there are some Hebraisms, they are not more numerous or striking than usually meet us in Hellenistic Greek. It is of some importance also that, although Jewish tradition adds largely to the legends about Manasseh, it has never supplied a Hebrew version of the Prayer (see VERSIONS; TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT). On the other hand, Ewald (Hist. Isr, I, 186; IV, 217, note 5, German edition, IV, 217), Furst (Gesch. der bibl. Lit., II, 399), Budde (ZAW, 1892, 39;), Ball (Speaker's Apocrypha) and others argue for a Hebrew original, perhaps existing in the source named of 2 Chronicles 33:18 (see Ryssel in Kautzsch, Die Apocrypha des Altes Testament, 167).

5. Authenticity:

Have we here the authentic prayer of Manasseh offered under the circumstances described in 2 Chronicles 33 ? Ewald and the other scholars named (see foregoing section), who think the Prayer was composed in Hebrew, say that we have probably here a Greek rendering of the Hebrew original which the Chronicler saw in his source. Ball, on the other hand, though not greatly opposed to this view, is more convinced that the Hebrew original is to be sought in a haggadic narrative concerning Manasseh. Even if we accept the view of Ewald or of Ball, we still desiderate evidence that this Hebrew original is the very prayer offered by the king in Babylon. But the arguments for a Greek original are fairly conclusive. Many Old Testament scholars regard the narrative of the captivity, prayer and penitence of Manasseh as a fiction of the Chronicler's imagination, to whom it seemed highly improper that this wicked king should escape the punishment (exile) which he richly deserved. So De Wette (Einleitung), Graf (Stud. u. Krit., 1859, 467-94, and Gesch. Bucher des Altes Testament, 174) and Noldeke (Schenkel's Bibelwerk, "Manasse"). Nothing corresponding to it occurs in the more literal narrative of 2 Kings 21, an argument which, however, has but little weight. Recent discoveries of cuneiform inscriptions have taken off the edge of the most important objections to the historicity of this part of Chronicles. See Ball (op. cit., 361;) and Bissell (Lange's Apocrypha, 468). The likeliest supposition is that the author of the Prayer was an Alexandrian Jew who, with 2 Chronicles 33 before him, desired to compose such a prayer as Manasseh was likely to offer under the supposed circumstances. This prayer, written in excellent Alexandrian Greek, is, as Fritzsche points out, an addition to 2 Chronicles 33, corresponding to the prayers of Mordecai and Esther added to the canonical Esther (Additions to Esther 13:8-14:19), and also to the prayer of Azarias (The So of the Three Children (Azariah) 1:2-22) and the So of the Three Young Men (The So of the Three Children (Azariah) 1:29-68) appended to the canonical Book of Daniel.

6. The Author and His Motive:

That the author was an Alexandrian Jew is made probable by the (Greek) language he employs and by the sentiments he expresses. It is strange to find Swete (Expository Times, II, 38) defending the Christian authorship of this Prayer. What purpose could the writer seek to realize in the composition and publication of the penitential psalm? In the absence of definite knowledge, one may with Reuss (Das Altes Testament, VI, 436) suppose that the Jewish nation was at the time given up to great unfaithfulness to God and to gross moral corruption. The lesson of the Prayer is that God will accept the penitent, whatever his sins, and remove from the nation its load of sufferings, if only it turns to God.

7. Date:

Ewald and Furst (op. cit.) hold that the prayer is at least as old as the Book of Chronicles (300 B.C.), since it is distinctly mentioned, they say, in 2 Chronicles 33:13, 18 f. But the original form was, as seen (compare 4 above), Greek, not Hebrew. Moreover, the teaching of the Prayer is post-Biblical. The patriarchs are idealized to the extent that they are thought perfect and therefore not needing forgiveness (33:8); their merits avail for the sinful and undeserving (33:1) (see Weber, Jud. Theologie, 292). The expressions "God of the Just" (33:8), "God of those who repent" (33:13), belong to comparatively late Judaism. A period about the beginning of the Christian era or (Fritzsche) slightly earlier would suit the character (language and teaching) of the Prayer. The similarity between the doctrines implied in The Prayer of Manasseh and those taught in apocryphal writings of the time confirms this conclusion. There is no need with Bertholdt to bring down the writing to the 2nd or 3rd century A.D. Fabricius (Liber Tobit, etc., 208) dates the Prayer in the 4th or 5th century A.D., because, in his opinion, its author is the same as that of the Apostolical Constitutions which has that date. But the source of this part of the Apostolical Constitutions is the Didaskalia (3rd century), and moreover both these treatises are of Christian origin, the Prayer being the work of an Alexandrian Jew.

8. Text and Versions:

(1) Greek:

The Greek text occurs in Codices Alexandrinus, T (Psalterium Turicence 262, Parsons). Swete (OLD TESTAMENT in Greek, III, 802-4) gives the text of Codex Alexandrinus with the variations of T. It is omitted from the bulk of ancient manuscripts and editions of the Septuagint, as also from several modern editions (Tischendorf, etc.). Nestle (Septuaginta Studien, 1899, 3) holds that the Greek text of Codices Alexandrinus, T, etc., has been taken from the Apostolical Constitutions or from the Didaskalia. The common view is that it was extracted by the latter from the Septuagint.

(2) Latin:

The Latin text in Sabatier (Bib. Sac. Latin, III, 1038) is not by Jerome, nor is it in the manner of the Old Latin; its date is later.


The outstanding literature has been cited in the foregoing article. Reference may be made to Howorth ("Some Unconventional Views on the Text of the Bible," PSBA, XXXI, 89;: he argues that the narrative concerning Manasseh, including the Prayer in the Apostolical Constitutions, represents a portion of the true Septuagint of 2 Chronicles 33).

T. Witton Davies


prar (deesis, proseuche, (enteuxis; for an excellent discussion of the meaning of these see Thayer's Lexicon, p. 126, under the word deesis; the chief verbs are euchomai, proseuchomai, and deomai, especially in Luke and Acts; aiteo, "to ask a favor" distinguished from erotao, "to ask a question," is found occasionally): In the Bible "prayer" is used in a simpler and a more complex a narrower and a wider signification. In the former case it is supplication for benefits either for one's self (petition) or for others (intercession). In the latter it is an act of worship which covers all soul in its approach to God. Supplication is at the heart of it, for prayer always springs out of a sense of need and a belief that God is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him (Hebrews 11:6). But adoration and confession and thanksgiving also find a It place, so that the suppliant becomes a worshipper. It is unnecessary to distinguish all the various terms for prayer that are employed in the Old Testament and the New Testament. But the fact should be noticed that in the Hebrew and Greek aloe there are on the one hand words for prayer that denote a direct petition or short, sharp cry of the heart in its distress (Psalm 30:2 2 Corinthians 12:8), and on the other "prayers" like that of Hannah (1 Samuel 2:1-10), which is in reality a song of thanksgiving, or that of Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ, in which intercession is mingled with doxology (Ephesians 3:14-21).

1. In the Old Testament:

The history of prayer as it meets us here reflects various stages of experience and revelation. In the patriarchal period, when `men began to call upon the name of the Lord' (Genesis 4:26; compare Genesis 12:8; Genesis 21:33), prayer is naive, familiar and direct (Genesis 15:2; 17:18; 18:23 ; 24:12). It is evidently associated with sacrifice (Genesis 12:8; Genesis 13:4; Genesis 26:25), the underlying idea probably being that the gift or offering would help to elicit the desired response. Analogous to this is Jacob's vow, itself a species of prayer, in which the granting of desired benefits becomes the condition of promised service and fidelity (Genesis 28:20). In the pre-exilic history of Israel prayer still retains many of the primitive features of the patriarchal type (Exodus 3:4 Numbers 11:11-15 Judges 6:13; 11:30 1 Samuel 1:11 2 Samuel 15:8 Psalm 66:13 f). The Law has remarkably little to say on the subject, differing here from the later Judaism (see Schurer, HJP, II, i, 290, index-vol, p. 93; and compare Matthew 6:5;; 23:14; Acts 3:1; Acts 16:13); while it confirms the association of prayer with sacrifices, which now appear, however, not as gifts in anticipation of benefits to follow, but as expiations of guilt (Deuteronomy 21:1-9) or thank offerings for past mercies (Deuteronomy 26:1-11). Moreover, the free, frank access of the private individual to God is more and more giving place to the mediation of the priest (Deuteronomy 21:5; Deuteronomy 26:3), the intercession of the prophet (Exodus 32:11-13 1 Samuel 7:5-13; 1 Samuel 12:23), the ordered approach of tabernacle and temple services (Exodus 40 1 Kings 8). The prophet, it is true, approaches God immediately and freely-Moses (Exodus 34:34 Deuteronomy 34:10) and David (2 Samuel 7:27) are to be numbered among the prophets-but he does so in virtue of his office, and on the ground especially of his possession of the Spirit and his intercessory function (compare Ezekiel 2:2 Jeremiah 14:15).

A new epoch in the history of prayer in Israel was brought about by the experiences of the Exile. Chastisement drove the nation to seek God more earnestly than before, and as the way of approach through the external forms of the temple and its sacrifices was now closed, the spiritual path of prayer was frequented with a new assiduity. The devotional habits of Ezra (Ezra 7:27; Ezra 8:23), Nehemlab (Nehemiah 2:4; Nehemiah 4:4, 9, etc.) and Daniel (Daniel 6:10) prove how large a place prayer came to hold in the individual life; while the utterances recorded in Ezra 9:6-15 Nehemiah 1:5-11; Nehemiah 9:5-38 Daniel 9:4-19 Isaiah 63:7-64:12 serve as illustrations of the language and spirit of the prayers of the Exile, and show especially the prominence now given to confession of sin. In any survey of the Old Testament teaching the Psalms occupy a place by themselves, both on account of the large period they cover in the history and because we are ignorant in most cases as to the particular circumstances of their origin. But speaking generally it may be said that here we see the loftiest flights attained by the spirit of prayer under the old dispensation-the intensest craving for pardon, purity and other spiritual blessings (Psalm 51; Psalm 130), the most heartfelt longing for a living communion with God Himself (Psalm 42:2; Psalm 63:1; Psalm 84:2).

2. In the New Testament:

Here it will be convenient to deal separately with the material furnished by the Gospel narratives of the life and teaching of Christ and that found in the remaining books. The distinctively Christian view of prayer comes to us from the Christ of the Gospels. We have to notice His own habits in the matter (Luke 3:21; Luke 6:12; Luke 9:16, 29; 22:32, 39-46; Luke 23:34-46 Matthew 27:46 John 17), which for all who accept Him as the revealer of the Father and the final authority in religion immediately dissipate all theoretical objections to the value and efficacy of prayer. Next we have His general teaching on the subject in parables (Luke 11:5-9; Luke 18:1-14) and incidental sayings (Matthew 5:44; Matthew 6:5-8; 7:7-11; 9:38; 17:21; 18:19; 21:22; 24:20:00; 26:41 and the parallels), which presents prayer, not as a mere energizing of the religious soul that is followed by beneficial spiritual reactions, but as the request of a child to a father (Matthew 6:8; Matthew 7:11), subject, indeed, to the father's will (Matthew 7:11; compare Matthew 6:10; Matthew 26:39, 42 1 John 5:14), but secure always of loving attention and response (Matthew 7:7-11; Matthew 21:22). In thus teaching us to approach God as our Father, Jesus raised prayer to its highest plane, making it not less reverent than it was at its best in Old Testament times, while far more intimate and trustful. In the LORD'S PRAYER (which see). He summed up His ordinary teaching on the subject in a concrete example which serves as a model and breviary of prayer (Matthew 6:9-13 Luke 11:2-4). But according to the Fourth Gospel, this was not His final word upon the subject. On the night of the betrayal, and in full view of His death and resurrection and ascension to God's right hand, He told His disciples that prayer was henceforth to be addressed to the Father in the name of the Son, and that prayer thus offered was sure to be granted (John 16:23, 24, 26). The differentia of Christian prayer thus consists in its being offered in the name of Christ; while the secret of its success lies on the one hand in the new access to the Father which Christ has secured for His people (John 17:19; compare Hebrews 4:14-16; Hebrews 10:19-22), and on the other in the fact that prayer offered in the name of Christ will be prayer in harmony with the Father's will (John 15:7; compare 1 John 3:22; 1 John 5:13).

In the Acts and Epistles we see the apostolic church giving effect to Christ's teaching on prayer. It was in a praying atmosphere that the church was born (Acts 1:14; compare Acts 2:1); and throughout its early history prayer continued to be its vital breath and native air (Acts 2:42; Acts 3:1; Acts 6:4, 6 and passim). The Epistles abound in references to prayer. Those of Paul in particular contain frequent allusions to his own personal practice in the matter (Romans 1:9 Ephesians 1:16 Philippians 1:9 1 Thessalonians 1:2, etc.), and many exhortations to his readers to cultivate the praying habit (Romans 12:12 Ephesians 6:18 Philippians 4:6 1 Thessalonians 5:17, etc.). But the new and characteristic thing about Christian prayer as it meets us now is its connection with the Spirit. It has become a spiritual gift (1 Corinthians 14:14-16); and even those who have not this gift in the exceptional charismatic sense may "pray in the Spirit" whenever they come to the throne of grace (Ephesians 6:18 Jude 1:20). The gift of the Spirit, promised by Christ (John 14:16;, etc.), has raised prayer to its highest power by securing for it a divine cooperation (Romans 8:15, 26 Galatians 4:6). Thus Christian prayer in its full New Testament meaning is prayer addressed to God as Father, in the name of Christ as Mediator, and through the enabling grace of the indwelling Spirit.


J. C. Lambert













4335. proseuche -- prayer
... prayer. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: proseuche Phonetic Spelling:
(pros-yoo-khay') Short Definition: prayer, a place for prayer Definition: ( ...
// - 7k

2171. euche -- a prayer
... a prayer. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: euche Phonetic Spelling:
(yoo-khay') Short Definition: a prayer, vow Definition: a prayer comprising a ...
// - 6k

685. ara -- a prayer, curse
... a prayer, curse. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: ara Phonetic Spelling:
(ar-ah') Short Definition: a prayer or prayer for evil, a curse ...
// - 6k

1162. deesis -- a need, entreaty
... entreaty. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: deesis Phonetic Spelling:
(deh'-ay-sis) Short Definition: supplication, prayer Definition: supplication ...
// - 7k

1783. enteuxis -- a petition, ie spec. supplication
... Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: enteuxis Phonetic Spelling:
(ent'-yook-sis) Short Definition: a petition, prayer, intercession Definition: ( ...
// - 8k

4336. proseuchomai -- to pray
... Verb Transliteration: proseuchomai Phonetic Spelling: (pros-yoo'-khom-ahee) Short
Definition: I pray, pray for Definition: I pray, pray for, offer prayer. ...
// - 9k

5440. phulakterion -- an outpost, fortification, an amulet
... parchment capsule containing little parchment rolls with the Hebrew texts, affixed
to the left upper arm or the forehead of men at morning prayer, and regarded ...
// - 7k

1967. epiousios -- for the coming day, for subsistence
... coming day," see the dictionary.]. 1967 ("aptly substantive") only occurs
in the Lord's Prayer. It refers to God's provision that ...
// - 7k

2589. kardiognostes -- knower of hearts
... preferences (convictions). Accordingly, God hears "the prayer of our prayers"
as He discerns our inner heart-preferences. Word Origin ...
// - 7k

4506. rhuomai -- to draw to oneself, ie deliver
... In Mt 6:13 ("the Lord's Prayer"), 4506 () is used in the closing sentence, " (4506 )
us from evil" -- ie "." That is, "Lord me out of my (personal) pains and ...
// - 8k

Strong's Hebrew
8605. tephillah -- prayer
... 8604, 8605. tephillah. 8606 . prayer. Transliteration: tephillah Phonetic
Spelling: (tef-il-law') Short Definition: prayer. Word ...
/hebrew/8605.htm - 6k

3908. lachash -- a whispering, charming
... Word Origin from lachash Definition a whispering, charming NASB Word Usage amulets
(1), charm (1), charmed (1), enchanter (1), whisper a prayer (1). ...
/hebrew/3908.htm - 6k

6279. athar -- to pray, supplicate
... entreat (2), entreated (2), listened to our entreaty (1), made supplication (2),
make supplication (4), moved by his entreaty (1), moved by prayer (2), pray (2 ...
/hebrew/6279.htm - 6k

7879. siach -- complaint, musing
... talk (1). babbling, communication, complaint, meditation, prayer, talk.
From siyach; a contemplation; by implication, an utterance ...
/hebrew/7879.htm - 6k

7881. sichah -- complaint, musing
... meditation, prayer. Feminine of siyach; reflection; be extension, devotion --
meditation, prayer. see HEBREW siyach. 7880, 7881. sichah. 7882 . ...
/hebrew/7881.htm - 6k

1245. baqash -- to seek
... A primitive root; to search out (by any method, specifically in worship or prayer);
by implication, to strive after -- ask, beg, beseech, desire, enquire, get ...
/hebrew/1245.htm - 6k

4864. maseth -- an uprising, utterance, burden, portion
... From nasa'; properly, (abstractly) a raising (as of the hands in prayer), or rising
(of flame); figuratively, an utterance; concretely, a beacon (as raised); a ...
/hebrew/4864.htm - 6k

2589. channoth -- be gracious, entreat
... be gracious, entreat From chanan (in the sense of prayer); supplication -- be gracious,
intreated. see HEBREW chanan. 2588, 2589. channoth. 2590 . ...
/hebrew/2589.htm - 5k

8469. tachanun -- supplication for favor
... Tehinnah. Or (feminine) tachanuwnah {takh-an-oo-naw'}; from chanan; earnest prayer --
intreaty, supplication. see HEBREW chanan. 8468, 8469. tachanun. 8470 > ...
/hebrew/8469.htm - 6k

2470. chalah -- to be weak or sick
... entreat -- beseech, (be) diseased, (put to) grief, be grieved, (be) grievous, infirmity,
intreat, lay to, put to pain, X pray, make prayer, be (fall, make) sick ...
/hebrew/2470.htm - 6k


Quiet Talks on Prayer
Quiet Talks on Prayer. <. Quiet Talks on Prayer SD (Samuel Dickey) Gordon.
Produced by Distributed Proofreaders Table of Contents. Title Page. ...
// talks on prayer/

Holy Wisdom: or, Directions for the Prayer of Contemplation
Holy Wisdom: or, Directions for the Prayer of Contemplation. <. Holy
Wisdom: or, Directions for the Prayer of Contemplation Ven. ...
/.../baker/holy wisdom or directions for the prayer of contemplation/

... PRAYER. A work of this nature would be inexcusable for not saying something about
prayer, for who can live life triumphantly without prayer? ...
// to live a holy life/prayer.htm

Of Prayer--A Perpetual Exercise of Faith
Of Prayer"A Perpetual Exercise of Faith. <. Of Prayer--A Perpetual Exercise
of Faith John Calvin. Henry Beveridge (Translator) Table of Contents. ...
// prayer--a perpetual exercise of faith/

... PRAYER. Upon this subject and the one following I ... The value of prayer can
hardly be estimated. Unless you are willing to take up a ...
/.../orr/food for the lambs or helps for young christians/prayer.htm

On Prayer
On Prayer. <. On Prayer Tertullian. Translated by Rev. S. Thelwall Table
of Contents. Title Page. Chapter I.--General Introduction. ...
// prayer/

... NOTES ON THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER. PRAYER. ... Prayer is faith passing into act; a union
of the will and the intellect realising in an intellectual act. ...
/.../coleridge/confessions of an inquiring spirit etc/prayer.htm

Touching Incidents and Remarkable Answers to Prayer
Touching Incidents and Remarkable Answers to Prayer. <. Touching
Incidents and Remarkable Answers to Prayer SB Shaw. ...
/.../shaw/touching incidents and remarkable answers to prayer/

With Christ in the School of Prayer
With Christ in the School of Prayer. <. With Christ in the School of Prayer
Andrew Murray. Table of Contents. Title Page. PREFACE. FIRST LESSON. ...
// christ in the school of prayer/

Origen on Prayer
Origen on Prayer. <. Origen on Prayer Origen. Table of Contents. Title
// on prayer/

Prayer (406 Occurrences)
... but in direct address to him. Prayer may be oral or mental, occasional or
constant, ejaculatory or formal. It is a "beseeching the ...
/p/prayer.htm - 80k

Plea (35 Occurrences)
... See under Common. 3. (n.) That which is alleged or pleaded, in defense or in
justification; an excuse; an apology. 4. (n.) An urgent prayer or entreaty. ...
/p/plea.htm - 16k

Prays (14 Occurrences)
... 1 Kings 8:28 Yet have respect for the prayer of your servant, and for his supplication,
Yahweh my God, to listen to the cry and to the prayer which your ...
/p/prays.htm - 10k

Manasses (1 Occurrence)
... (4) A king of Judah (Matthew 1:10 the King James Version, Greek form, the Revised
Version (British and American) "Manasseh"), whose prayer forms one of the ...
/m/manasses.htm - 19k

Prayeth (28 Occurrences)
... 1 Kings 8:28 Yet have thou respect unto the prayer of thy servant, and to his
supplication, O LORD my God, to hearken unto the cry and to the prayer, which thy ...
/p/prayeth.htm - 14k

Requests (29 Occurrences)
... Ephesians 6:18 with all prayer and requests, praying at all times in the Spirit,
and being watchful to this end in all perseverance and requests for all the ...
/r/requests.htm - 15k

Attentive (18 Occurrences)
... 1 Peter 3:12 For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears open to
their prayer; but the face of the Lord is against those who do evil." (See NIV ...
/a/attentive.htm - 12k

Attitudes (1 Occurrence)
... No doubt several attitudes were assumed by the worshipper or suppliant while
offering a prayer or petition. The intensity, the ardor ...
/a/attitudes.htm - 20k

Three (5005 Occurrences)
... A under the headings, "The Prayer of Azarias" (Proseuche Azariou, Azariah, Daniel
1:6) and "The Hymn of Our Fathers" (Humnos ton pateron hemon); see Swete, The ...
/t/three.htm - 18k

Supplications (32 Occurrences)
... 1 Kings 8:54 And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end of praying all this
prayer and supplication unto the LORD, he arose from before the altar of the ...
/s/supplications.htm - 16k

Why is daily prayer important? |

What is a prayer vigil? |

What are the different types of prayer? |

Prayer: Dictionary and Thesaurus |

Bible ConcordanceBible DictionaryBible EncyclopediaTopical BibleBible Thesuarus
Prayer (406 Occurrences)

Matthew 5:44
But I say to you, Have love for those who are against you, and make prayer for those who are cruel to you;

Matthew 6:6
But when you make your prayer, go into your private room, and, shutting the door, say a prayer to your Father in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will give you your reward.

Matthew 6:7
And in your prayer do not make use of the same words again and again, as the Gentiles do: for they have the idea that God will give attention to them because of the number of their words.

Matthew 6:9
Let this then be your prayer: Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy.

Matthew 9:38
Make prayer, then, to the Lord of the grain-fields, that he may send out workers to get in his grain.

Matthew 14:23
And after he had sent the people away, he went up into the mountain by himself for prayer: and when evening was come, he was there by himself.

Matthew 17:21
But this kind doesn't go out except by prayer and fasting."

Matthew 21:13
He said to them, "It is written,'My house shall be called a house of prayer,' but you have made it a den of robbers!"

Matthew 21:22
All things, whatever you ask in prayer, believing, you will receive."

Matthew 23:14
Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.

Matthew 24:20
And say a prayer that your flight may not be in the winter, or on a Sabbath.

Matthew 26:36
Then comes Jesus with them to a place named Gethsemane, and says to his disciples, Be seated here, while I go over there for prayer.

Matthew 26:39
And he went forward a little, and falling down on his face in prayer, he said, O my Father, if it is possible, let this cup go from me; but let not my pleasure, but yours be done.

Matthew 26:41
Keep watch with prayer, so that you may not be put to the test: the spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is feeble.

Matthew 26:42
Again, a second time he went away, and said in prayer, O my Father, if this may not go from me without my taking it, let your pleasure be done.

Matthew 26:44
And he went away from them again, and a third time said the same prayer.

Mark 1:35
And in the morning, a long time before daylight, he got up and went out to a quiet place, and there he gave himself up to prayer.

Mark 5:23
And made strong prayers to him, saying, My little daughter is near to death: it is my prayer that you will come and put your hands on her, so that she may be made well, and have life.
(Root in BBE)

Mark 6:46
And after he had sent them away, he went up into a mountain for prayer.

Mark 9:29
He said to them, "This kind can come out by nothing, except by prayer and fasting."

Mark 11:17
He taught, saying to them, "Isn't it written,'My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations?' But you have made it a den of robbers!"

Mark 11:24
For this reason I say to you, Whatever you make a request for in prayer, have faith that it has been given to you, and you will have it.

Mark 11:25
And whenever you make a prayer, let there be forgiveness in your hearts, if you have anything against anyone; so that you may have forgiveness for your sins from your Father who is in heaven.

Mark 13:18
And say a prayer that it may not be in the winter.

Mark 13:33
Take care, keep watch with prayer: for you are not certain when the time will be.

Mark 14:32
And they came to a place which was named Gethsemane: and he said to his disciples, Be seated here while I say a prayer.

Mark 14:38
Keep watch with prayer, so that you may not be put to the test; the spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is feeble.

Mark 14:39
And again he went away, and said a prayer, using the same words.

Luke 1:10
And all the people were offering prayers outside, at the time of the burning of perfumes.
(Root in BBE NAS)

Luke 1:13
But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.

Luke 2:37
And she was a widow of about fourscore and four years, which departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.

Luke 3:21
Now it came about that when all the people had been given baptism, Jesus, having had baptism with them, was in prayer, when, the heaven being open,

Luke 5:12
And it came about that while he was in one of the towns, there was a leper there: and when he saw Jesus he went down on his face in prayer to him, saying, Lord, if it is your pleasure, you have power to make me clean.

Luke 5:16
But he went away by himself to a waste place for prayer.

Luke 6:12
It happened in these days, that he went out to the mountain to pray, and he continued all night in prayer to God.

Luke 9:18
And it came about that when he was in prayer, by himself, and the disciples were with him, he put a question to them, saying, Who do the people say I am?

Luke 9:28
And about eight days after he had said these things, he took Peter and John and James with him and went up into the mountain for prayer.

Luke 9:29
And while he was in prayer, his face was changed and his clothing became white and shining.

Luke 10:2
And he said to them, There is much grain ready to be cut, but not enough workers: so make prayer to the Lord of the grain-fields that he will send workers to get in the grain.

Luke 11:1
And it came about that he was in prayer in a certain place, and when he came to an end, one of his disciples said to him, Lord, will you give us teaching about prayer, as John did to his disciples?

Luke 18:1
And he made a story for them, the point of which was that men were to go on making prayer and not get tired;

Luke 18:10
Two men went up to the Temple for prayer; one a Pharisee, and the other a tax-farmer.

Luke 19:46
saying to them, "It is written,'My house is a house of prayer,' but you have made it a'den of robbers'!"

Luke 21:36
But keep watch at all times with prayer, that you may be strong enough to come through all these things and take your place before the Son of man.

Luke 22:32
But I have made prayer for you, that your faith may not go from you: and when you are turned again, make your brothers strong.

Luke 22:40
And when he came to the place, he said to them, Make a prayer that you may not be put to the test.

Luke 22:41
And he went a little distance away from them and, falling on his knees in prayer, he said,

Luke 22:44
And being in great trouble of soul, the force of his prayer became stronger, and great drops, like blood, came from him, falling to the earth.

Luke 22:45
When he rose up from his prayer, he came to the disciples, and found them sleeping because of grief,

Luke 22:46
And he said, Why are you sleeping? Get up, and give yourselves to prayer, so that you may not be put to the test.

John 4:10
In answer Jesus said, If you had knowledge of what God gives freely and who it is who says to you, Give me water, you would make your prayer to him, and he would give you living water.

John 14:16
And I will make prayer to the Father and he will give you another Helper to be with you for ever,

John 16:26
In that day you will make requests in my name: and I do not say that I will make prayer to the Father for you,

John 17:9
My prayer is for them: my prayer is not for the world, but for those whom you have given to me, because they are yours

John 17:15
My prayer is not that you will take them out of the world, but that you will keep them from the Evil One.

John 17:20
My prayer is not for them only, but for all who will have faith in me through their word;

John 18:1
After offering this prayer Jesus went out with His disciples to a place on the further side of the Ravine of the Cedars, where there was a garden which He entered--Himself and His disciples.

Acts 1:14
All these with one accord continued steadfastly in prayer and supplication, along with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers.

Acts 2:21
And whoever makes his prayer to the Lord will have salvation.

Acts 2:42
They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer.

Acts 3:1
Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour.

Acts 4:24
And hearing it, they all, with one mind, made prayer to God and said, O Lord, maker of heaven and earth and the sea and all things in them:

Acts 4:31
And when their prayer was ended, the place where they were was violently moved, and they all became full of the Holy Spirit, preaching the word of God without fear.

Acts 6:4
But we will continue steadfastly in prayer and in the ministry of the word."

Acts 6:6
These men they brought to the Apostles, and, after prayer, they laid their hands upon them.

Acts 7:59
And Stephen, while he was being stoned, made prayer to God, saying, Lord Jesus, take my spirit.

Acts 8:15
Who, when they came there, made prayer for them, that the Holy Spirit might be given to them:

Acts 8:22
Let your heart be changed, and make prayer to God that you may have forgiveness for your evil thoughts.

Acts 8:24
And Simon, answering, said, Make prayer for me to the Lord, so that these things which you have said may not come on me.

Acts 9:11
And the Lord said to him, Get up, and go to the street which is named Straight, and make search at the house of Judas for one named Saul of Tarsus: for he is at prayer;

Acts 9:40
But Peter made them all go outside, and went down on his knees in prayer; and turning to the body, he said, Tabitha, get up. And, opening her eyes, she saw Peter and got up.

Acts 10:2
He was religious and God-fearing--and so was every member of his household. He was also liberal in his charities to the people, and continually offered prayer to God.

Acts 10:9
Now the day after, when they were on their journey and were near the town, Peter went up to the top of the house for prayer, about the sixth hour:

Acts 10:30
"Just at this hour, three days ago," replied Cornelius, "I was offering afternoon prayer in my house, when suddenly a man in shining raiment stood in front of me,

Acts 10:31
and said,'Cornelius, your prayer is heard, and your gifts to the needy are remembered in the sight of God.

Acts 11:5
"While I was in the town of Jaffa, offering prayer," he said, "in a trance I saw a vision. There descended what seemed to be an enormous sail, being let down from the sky by ropes at the four corners, and it came close to me.

Acts 12:5
Peter therefore was kept in the prison, but constant prayer was made by the assembly to God for him.

Acts 12:12
And when he became clear about this, he went to the house of Mary, the mother of John named Mark, where a number of them had come together for prayer.

Acts 13:3
So, after fasting and prayer and the laying on of hands, they let them go.

Acts 14:23
And in every Church, after prayer and fasting, they selected Elders by show of hands, and commended them to the Lord on whom their faith rested.

Acts 16:13
On the Sabbath day we went forth outside of the city by a riverside, where we supposed there was a place of prayer, and we sat down, and spoke to the women who had come together.

Acts 16:16
It happened, as we were going to prayer, that a certain girl having a spirit of divination met us, who brought her masters much gain by fortune telling.

Acts 20:36
And having said these words, he went down on his knees in prayer with them all.

Acts 21:5
And when these days came to an end, we went on our journey; and they all, with their wives and children, came with us on our way till we were out of the town: and after going on our knees in prayer by the sea,

Acts 22:17
And it came about that when I had come back to Jerusalem, while I was at prayer in the Temple, my senses became more than naturally clear,

Acts 26:29
"My prayer to God, whether briefly or at length," replied Paul, "would be that not only you but all who are my hearers to-day, might become such as I am--except these chains."

Acts 28:8
And the father of Publius was ill, with a disease of the stomach; to whom Paul went, and put his hands on him, with prayer, and made him well.

Romans 8:26
In the same way the Spirit also helps us in our weakness; for we do not know what prayers to offer nor in what way to offer them. But the Spirit Himself pleads for us in yearnings that can find no words,
(Root in WEY BBE)

Romans 10:1
Brothers, my heart's desire and my prayer to God is for Israel, that they may be saved.

Romans 12:12
rejoicing in hope; enduring in troubles; continuing steadfastly in prayer;

Romans 15:30
Now I beg you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me,

1 Corinthians 7:5
Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for a season, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may be together again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack of self-control.

1 Corinthians 11:4
Every man who takes part in prayer, or gives teaching as a prophet, with his head covered, puts shame on his head.

1 Corinthians 11:13
Be judges yourselves of the question: does it seem right for a woman to take part in prayer unveiled?

1 Corinthians 14:14
For if I make use of tongues in my prayers, my spirit makes the prayer, but not my mind.
(Root in BBE)

1 Corinthians 14:15
What then? let my prayer be from the spirit, and equally from the mind; let my song be from the spirit, and equally from mind.

1 Corinthians 14:16
For if you give a blessing with the spirit, how will the man who has no knowledge say, So be it, after your prayer, seeing that he has not taken in what you are saying?

2 Corinthians 1:11
Ye also helping together by prayer for us, that for the gift bestowed upon us by the means of many persons thanks may be given by many on our behalf.

2 Corinthians 9:14
And by their prayer for you, which long after you for the exceeding grace of God in you.

2 Corinthians 13:7
And our prayer to God is that you may do nothing wrong; not in order that our sincerity may be demonstrated, but that you may do what is right, even though our sincerity may seem to be doubtful.


Answers To Prayer: A Motive for Continued Prayer

Answers To Prayer: Abraham

Answers To Prayer: Abraham's Servant

Answers To Prayer: Apostles

Answers To Prayer: Asa

Answers To Prayer: Blind Man

Answers To Prayer: Christ Gives

Answers To Prayer: Christ Received

Answers To Prayer: Cornelius

Answers To Prayer: Daniel

Answers To Prayer: David

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who are Blood Shedders

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who are Deaf to the Cry of the Poor

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who are Hypocrites

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who are Idolaters

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who are Proud

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who are Self-Righteous

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who are the Enemies of Saints

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who are Wavering

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who: Ask Amiss

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who: Cruelly Oppress Saints

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who: Forsake God

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who: Hear not the Law

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who: Live in Sin

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who: Offer Unworthy Service to God

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who: Regard Iniquity in the Heart

Answers To Prayer: Denied to Those Who: Reject the Call of God

Answers To Prayer: Elijah

Answers To Prayer: Elisha

Answers To Prayer: Ezra

Answers To Prayer: God Gives

Answers To Prayer: Granted: Beyond Expectation

Answers To Prayer: Granted: Sometimes After Delay

Answers To Prayer: Granted: Sometimes Differently from Our Desire

Answers To Prayer: Granted: Sometimes Immediately

Answers To Prayer: Granted: Through the Grace of God

Answers To Prayer: Hannah

Answers To Prayer: Hezekiah

Answers To Prayer: Israelites

Answers To Prayer: Jabez

Answers To Prayer: Jacob

Answers To Prayer: Jehoahaz

Answers To Prayer: Jehoshaphat

Answers To Prayer: Jeremiah

Answers To Prayer: Job

Answers To Prayer: Jonah

Answers To Prayer: Lot

Answers To Prayer: Man of God

Answers To Prayer: Manasseh

Answers To Prayer: Moses

Answers To Prayer: Nehemiah

Answers To Prayer: Paul

Answers To Prayer: Paul and Silas

Answers To Prayer: Promised

Answers To Prayer: Promised Especially in Times of Trouble

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who are Poor and Needy

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who are Righteous

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Abide in Christ

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Ask According to God's Will

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Ask in Faith

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Ask in the Name of Christ

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Call Upon God in Truth

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Call Upon God Under Affliction

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Call Upon God Under Oppression

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Fear God

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Humble Themselves

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Keep God's Commandments

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Return to God

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Seek God

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Seek God With all the Heart

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Set Their Love Upon God

Answers To Prayer: Received by Those Who: Wait Upon God

Answers To Prayer: Refusal of Elders of Israel

Answers To Prayer: Refusal of Pharisees

Answers To Prayer: Refusal of Saul

Answers To Prayer: Saints are Assured of

Answers To Prayer: Saints: Bless God For

Answers To Prayer: Saints: Love God For

Answers To Prayer: Saints: Praise God For

Answers To Prayer: Samson

Answers To Prayer: Samuel

Answers To Prayer: Solomon

Answers To Prayer: The Christians

Answers To Prayer: Thief on the Cross

Answers To Prayer: Zacharias

Intercessory Prayer by Ministers for Their People

Intercessory Prayer: Abraham

Intercessory Prayer: Abraham's Servant

Intercessory Prayer: Beneficial to the offerer

Intercessory Prayer: Christ Set an Example of

Intercessory Prayer: Church of Jerusalem

Intercessory Prayer: Commanded

Intercessory Prayer: Daniel

Intercessory Prayer: David

Intercessory Prayer: Elisha

Intercessory Prayer: Encouragement To

Intercessory Prayer: Epaphras

Intercessory Prayer: Ezekiel

Intercessory Prayer: Hezekiah

Intercessory Prayer: Isaiah

Intercessory Prayer: Moses

Intercessory Prayer: Nehemiah

Intercessory Prayer: Paul

Intercessory Prayer: Peter and John

Intercessory Prayer: Philemon

Intercessory Prayer: Samuel

Intercessory Prayer: Seek an Interest In

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: All in Authority

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: All Men

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: All Saints

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Children

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Enemies Among Whom we Dwell

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Fellow-Countrymen

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Friends

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Kings

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Masters

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Ministers

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Persecutors

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Servants

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: The Church

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: The Sick

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Those Who Envy Us

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Those Who Forsake Us

Intercessory Prayer: should be offered up For: Those Who Murmur Against God

Intercessory Prayer: Sin of Neglecting

Intercessory Prayer: Solomon

Intercessory Prayer: Stephen

Intercessory Prayer: Unavailing for the Obstinately-Impenitent


Prayer and Fasting

Prayer by Abraham

Prayer by Abraham's Servant

Prayer by Cornelius

Prayer by Jacob

Prayer by Moses, Supplicating for Assistance in Delivering Israel

Prayer for Healing

Prayer for Mercy and Grace to Help in Time of Need

Prayer for Spiritual Blessings

Prayer for Temporal Blessings

Prayer for the Comforter (The Holy Spirit) to Come

Prayer in a Loud Voice, Satirized by Elijah

Prayer in Behalf of Peter

Prayer in Distress

Prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane

Prayer in the Wilderness

Prayer is Described as Beseeching the Lord

Prayer is Described as Bowing the Knees

Prayer is Described as Calling Upon the Name of the Lord

Prayer is Described as Crying to God

Prayer is Described as Crying to Heaven

Prayer is Described as Drawing Near to God

Prayer is Described as Lifting up the Heart

Prayer is Described as Lifting up the Soul

Prayer is Described as Looking Up

Prayer is Described as Making Supplication

Prayer is Described as Pouring out the Heart

Prayer is Described as Pouring out the Soul

Prayer is Described as Seeking the Face of the Lord

Prayer is Described as Seeking to God

Prayer of Balaam

Prayer of David

Prayer of Habakkuk

Prayer of Job

Prayer of Joseph

Prayer of Joshua

Prayer of Manasses

Prayer of Moses, at the Red Sea

Prayer of Pharisees

Prayer of Scribes

Prayer of the Apostles

Prayer of the Israelites, when Attacked by the Amorites

Prayer of the Righteous, Avails Much

Prayer of the Tax Collector

Prayer of the Upright, a Delight to God

Prayer without Ceasing


Prayer: "The Lord's Prayer"

Prayer: Acceptable Through Christ

Prayer: Accompanied With: Confession

Prayer: Accompanied With: Fasting

Prayer: Accompanied With: Praise

Prayer: Accompanied With: Repentance

Prayer: Accompanied With: Self-Abasement

Prayer: Accompanied With: Thanksgiving

Prayer: Accompanied With: Watchfulness

Prayer: Accompanied With: Weeping

Prayer: After the Supper

Prayer: All Night

Prayer: An Evidence of Conversion

Prayer: Anna

Prayer: Answer To, Delayed

Prayer: Answer To, Promise

Prayer: Answered

Prayer: Answered for Abimelech

Prayer: Answered for God's Favor Under the Reproofs of Azariah

Prayer: Answered for Ishmael

Prayer: Answered for Sodom

Prayer: Answered: Abijah, for Victory Over Jeroboam

Prayer: Answered: Abraham, for a Son

Prayer: Answered: Abraham's Servant, for Guidance

Prayer: Answered: Ammon

Prayer: Answered: Asa, for Victory Over Zerah

Prayer: Answered: Cain

Prayer: Answered: Centurion, for his Servant

Prayer: Answered: Daniel, for the Interpretation of Nebuchadnezzars Dream

Prayer: Answered: Daniel, in a Vision

Prayer: Answered: Daniel, Interceding for the People

Prayer: Answered: David, Asking About Ziklag

Prayer: Answered: David, Asking Whether he should Go Into Judah After Saul's Death

Prayer: Answered: David, Asking Whether he should Go to War Against the Philistines

Prayer: Answered: David, Asking Whether Keilah Would be Delivered Into his Hands

Prayer: Answered: David, in Adversity

Prayer: Answered: Elijah, Asking for Rain

Prayer: Answered: Elijah, Calling for Fire to Come Down Upon his Sacrifice

Prayer: Answered: Elijah, Raising the Widow's Son

Prayer: Answered: Elisha, Leading the Syrian Army

Prayer: Answered: Ezekiel, to Have the Baking of his Bread of Affliction Changed

Prayer: Answered: from Babylonian Bondage

Prayer: Answered: from Bondage

Prayer: Answered: from Pharaoh's Army

Prayer: Answered: from the King of Mesopotamia

Prayer: Answered: Gideon, Asking for the Token of Dew

Prayer: Answered: Hagar, for Deliverance

Prayer: Answered: Hannah, Asking to Give Birth to a Child

Prayer: Answered: Hezekiah and Isaiah, for Deliverance from Sennacherib

Prayer: Answered: Jabez, Asking for Prosperity

Prayer: Answered: Jacob, for Deliverance from Esau

Prayer: Answered: Jehoahaz, for Victory Over Hazael

Prayer: Answered: Jehoshaphat, for Victory Over the Canaanites

Prayer: Answered: Manasseh, for Deliverance from the King of Babylon

Prayer: Answered: Manoah, Asking About Samson

Prayer: Answered: Moses, Aaron, and Samuel

Prayer: Answered: Moses, at Mount Horeb

Prayer: Answered: Moses, at the Waters of Marah

Prayer: Answered: Moses, Concerning the Complaint of the Israelites for Meat

Prayer: Answered: Moses, for Help at the Red Sea

Prayer: Answered: Moses, in the Battle With the Amalekites

Prayer: Answered: Moses, on Behalf of Miriam's Leprosy

Prayer: Answered: Paul, to be Restored to Health

Prayer: Answered: Peter, Asking T

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